Transport in animals (The heart)


Biology (F211) Mind Map on Transport in animals (The heart), created by Nikita96 on 05/14/2013.
Mind Map by Nikita96, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by Nikita96 about 10 years ago

Resource summary

Transport in animals (The heart)
  1. Muscular double pump. The right side pumps deoxygenated blood. The left side pumps oxygenated blood.
    1. Valves in the heart prevent blood flowing the wrong way
      1. Atrioventricular valves link the atria and the ventricles
        1. The semi-lunar valves link the ventricles to the pulmonary artery and aorta.
        2. Thickness of the chamber walls
          1. Atria: the muscle is very thin. This is because these chambers do not need to create much pressure. Their function is to push the blood into the ventricles
            1. Right ventricle: They are thicker than the atria walls. Enables the ventricle to push blood out of the heart. It is thinner than the left ventricle as it only pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs which are next to the heart. The lungs have thin capilaries and could easily burst if the pressure is very high
              1. Left ventricle: The blood pumped out of the left ventricle is pumped through the aorta and needs sufficient pressure to overcome the systemic circulation
              2. Cardiac cycle
                1. 1. Diastole: Ventricles and atria relax, internal volume increases and blood flows into the heart. Blood flows into the atria and through the atrioventricular valves.
                  1. 2.Atrial systole: Atria contract and ventricles relax. The contraction helps push the blood into the ventricles and ensures they are full of blood. Blood fills the atrioventricular valves and they snap shut
                    1. 3. Ventricular systole: Ventricles contract and atria relax. Contraction at the apex of the heart and the blood is pushed upwards. Semilunar valves open and blood is pushed out of the heart
                    2. Cardiac muscle
                      1. Sinoatrial node(SAN): Is in the right atrium and is a pacemaker. Sets the rhythm of the heartbeat. Sends excitation waves to the artrial walls.
                        1. Both atria contract
                          1. Collagen prevents the waves from being passed directly from the atria to the ventricles
                        2. The waves are transferred from the SAN to the atrioventricular node(AVN)
                          1. The AVN is in the septum of the heart. There is a delay to make sure all the blood is in the ventricles before it contracts
                            1. The excitation waves travel down the Purkyne tissue and causes the ventricular walls to contract from the base
                          2. ECG
                            1. P wave: Excitation of the atria. QRS wave: excitation of the ventricles. T wave: shows diastole
                              1. ElectroCardioGram
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