1 Why did Catherine not want her
marriage to be annulled?
1.1 She was concerned for Mary's Legitimacy
1.2 She claimed that her marriage to Arthur had
not been consummated and therefore the
Papal dispensation was entirely valid.
1.3 She had grown to love
Henry - They had worked
well together and Henry had
taken a mistress at an older
age, suggesting that he was
satisfied with her.
1.4 She was a devout Catholic
and didn't believe in Divorce
1.5 She hated
1.6 She was encouraged by her
nephew Charles V who fully
supported the Pope
1.7 She was meek and mild, and believed
in lifelong obedience to her husband.
1.8 She would not see Mary again ( She
was requested to move to a convent).
2 Why did Henry want a divorce?
2.1 He believed that he had gone against God's will in marrying
Catherine. He believed in Leviticus 20:16
2.1.1 Mary's legitimacy had been questioned by the
French who used it as a reason to call off a
2.2 He loved Anne Boleyn. She caused him
to fall in love with her by withholding her
affections. She was also driven towards
Henry by the Duke of Northumberland.
2.3 Catherine was unable to have children as she was past
the menopause, having been able to produce a living
daughter, Henry was terrified of not having a male heir.
He believed that this was a punishment from God.
2.3.1 The last English Queen, Matilda, had resulted in civil unrest
3 Was Anne Boleyn the most important person in bringing about the King's
3.1.1 She refused to become Henry's
mistress and was determined to use
her wiles to ensure that she
3.1.2 She introduced Henry to texts such as
those of Tyndale, Fish and St German,
which demonstrated that he King should
be head of the Church in his own country
and not bow to the rule of Rome.
3.1.3 Anne accompanied Henry on his visity to Francois I which
was deemed necessary in terms of securing continental
support for the divorce. Anne's knowledge and experience in
the French court was believed to be vital.
3.2.1 Thomas Cromwell:
220.127.116.11 He masterminded the
enabled Henry to
secure the divorce.
18.104.22.168 He was responsible for the
manipulation of individual
members of Parliament as
well as for overall policies.
22.214.171.124 He enabled the break
with Rome and the
divorce to be achieved by
126.96.36.199 Cramner was a leading Cambridge
academic and can be seen as the most
exalted specimen of Anne's religious
patronage but as archbishop of Canterbury,
a position secured before the final break
with Rome, he not only married Anne to
Henry but also confirmed to Henry that he
was well within his rights to rejects the
4 Why did Catherine refuse to accept that her marriage had not been
4.1 A papal dispensation had been given for the marriage to take place. Catherine
believed that the blessing of the Pope gave validity to her marriage. Linked to
this, she refused to accept the legitimacy of the court held at Blackfriars and
stated that the case could only be heard by the Pope in Rome.
4.2 Catherine did not believe Henry's view of the
marriage in terms of the lack of Heirs. Mary
was alive an a son had been born alive.
This disproved the Levitican analysis
argued by Henry, and linked to this Catherine
argued that her marriage to Arthur had not
been consummated and therefore had not
been a proper marriage.
4.3 Catherine did not want replaced Anne Boleyn who she disliked. She
did not want to lose her status at court to another woman, or for Mary
to lose her position as rightful heir.
4.4 Catherine loved Henry. There is considerable evidence
that in the early years of the marriage, Henry and she had
been very happy. Unlike most kings, Henry was late in
taking a mistress. She believed that Henry's infatuation for
Anne would pass
5 Why did Henry summon Parliament in
5.1 He intended to bring about the fall of Wolsey
and he was much Hated by parliament
5.1.1 Act of Attainder (1529)
5.2 He wanted to put pressure on the Pope
5.3 He wanted to demonstrate that the "political
nation" was supporting him.
5.4 He wasn't entirely sure of a plan and wanted
parliament to declare his marriage invalid.