2.1 'Global media are the new missionaries of
corporate capital' Harman & McChesney 1997.
2.1.1 Satalite TV introdcued to 165m new households between 1990- 1997.
2.1.2 80% of worlds news produced by 5 main corporations
less than 25% of the news concerns LEDC's.
2.2 Traditional repelling of media and globalisation.
2.2.1 'Durability of the French film industry' Scott 2000.
2.2.2 In uk BBC still owns large majority of TV
coverage, 0.3% and 0.2% owned by MTV and
220.127.116.11 'The daily reach of ITV and BBC outstrips the monthly reach of
CNN throughout europe' Sparks 1998.
2.2.3 Nations still control media, Burma,
South Korea etc.
18.104.22.168 ' New media technologies restrict and contest the
Americanization of media' Nayak & Kehily 2013.
3 Sports mega-events and development.
3.1 'They have turned the colonial
game into an activity that was
distinctly african' Alegi 2010.
3.2 'Global mega events are short lived with extraordinary stature and future impacts'
3.2.1 'The vuvuzela became a global icon' Tomlinson 2011.
22.214.171.124 'Mega events have both
negative and positive impacts'
Horne & Manzenreiter 2006'
126.96.36.199.1 '£9.9 billon trade
boost from London
3.2.2 Mediatized global sports mega events' Roche 2003.
188.8.131.52 'Often the attraction of events is linked to the reimageing process linked to
urban regeneration and tourism development' Gratton, Coleman 2005.
184.108.40.206.1 'The development model for sporting events is a
paradoxical mix of state led development and neo-liberal
governance' Manzo 2012.
220.127.116.11.1.1 '8 0f 8 olympic park venues have been secured after
the games within 1 year' Coe 2013.
18.104.22.168.1.1.1 'Sports mega events are an inherently
mixed blessing' Rogerson 2009.
4 Transnational Physical Culture.
4.1 'Modernities across the world
have co-evolved' Eisenstadt.
4.1.1 Shmuel Eisenstadt 1923-2010.
4.1.2 Contortionism & Yoga at same time.
4.2 'First translated texts show a deep seated colonial
hatred against yoga' Singleton 2010
4.2.1 'Yogins were traditional
linked to black magic ' Ben
22.214.171.124 'Until 1940 yoga in USA continued to be seen
as mystical' Alter 2006.
126.96.36.199.1 'Marketed as a healthy lifestyle which became attractive
to middle class women' Barley 2008.
188.8.131.52.1.1 'Modern society can be judged by the level of the leisure class' Verblen 1925.
184.108.40.206.1.2 Mollie Bagot Stack stretch and Swing system. 1925
220.127.116.11.1.2.1 Monroe and Swanson.
18.104.22.168.1.3 'Following introduction by Indra Devi for the home.
4.2.2 ' Colonialism was seeing hindu as week and
lethargic, yoga was therefore important to them to
overturn this image' Singleton 2010.
22.214.171.124 'Yoga has nowadays toughened up based around sweat and
commitment' Syman 2010.
126.96.36.199.1 'The re-appropriation of yoga bas simultaneously expressed
the westernisation of the east and the easternization of the
west' Askegaard & Eckhardt 2011.
188.8.131.52.1.1 Swami Randev has renationalised yoga
184.108.40.206.1.1.1 More Spiritual.
220.127.116.11.2 Bikram yoga.
18.104.22.168.2.1 Ryan Giggs.
4.3 Eugene Sandow.
4.3.1 'Sandow traveled around the world preaching his gospel of
health and strength' Budd 1977.
22.214.171.124 ' K. V. Iyer published a book on Sandow.
126.96.36.199 Ramesh Balsekar Spread Indian tradition in UK.
188.8.131.52.1 Book called Streamlines.
5 Cosmoplitan dilemmas.
5.1 'English villages want multicultural lifestyle yet still
want the image of a traditional English village' May
5.2 'I am a citizen of the world' Diogenes 5th Century.
5.2.1 'We are all cosmopolitan now, we can eat food
and mix races all over the world' Jaques.
184.108.40.206 'To be cosmopolitan is to be civilised' Homi Bhabha.
5.3 1st use.
5.3.1 'Capital is becoming more and more cosmopolitan' Mill 1948.
220.127.116.11 'the 18th century western world has given a
cosmopolitan character in every country through its
exploitation of the world market' Marx & Engles. 1848
18.104.22.168 ' Cosmopolitanism is now largely the project of capitalism' Calhoun 2002.
22.214.171.124.1 Not true.
126.96.36.199.1.1 ' Suggestions that cosmopolitan nations didn't even start in the capitalist modernised
west, highlighted by the Ottoman Empire' Mandel 2008'
188.8.131.52.1.1.1 14th-20th century. Budapest - Mecca.
6 Youth Culture.
6.1 'Incresing levels of fordist
transitions, schools, training
schemes'. Wills 1977.
6.2 'Increased risk in youth culture'
6.2.1 Women no longer confined to a 'culture of the bedroom' McRobbie 1978.
6.3 'a shift from work places to cool
places' Skelton & Valentine 1998.
6.3.1 'the corporate nighttime
economy has become highly
standardised' Hollands 2003.
6.4 Still desirable to be little meters in worker cities such as Sheffield'
Taylor, Evans and Fraser 1996.
6.5 China and India
6.5.1 'Chinese youth now linked to sexual
cosmopolitanism through urban music,
not an effort to copy the west but develop
their own culture based on youth
interests'. Farrer 1999
6.5.2 'Youth culture in India has been more westernised based on the influx of
western youth on the beaches of Goa... however this is more deeply
divided due to religion and ideas of racial class and privilege' Saldanha
7.1 Asian Century?
7.1.1 'The slacker west' Prashad 1999.
184.108.40.206 'Societies can go wrong quickly' Goh
Chok Tong (Singapore PM).
220.127.116.11.1 'China and India are the world next global
powers' Legace 2003.
18.104.22.168.1.1 'The universal belief that the west has
reached the cultural, technological limit and
can no longer sustain it'. Chung 1998.
22.214.171.124.1.2 Gini index suggests the two nations
poverty gap is however increasing.
126.96.36.199.1.2.1 China 1981- 29.1, 2005- 41.5.
188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206 Lower the number = more equal.
220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168 Of the combined population of
2.3 billion, 1.5 billon early less
than $2 a day.
22.214.171.124.1.3 'In order to achieve economic growth
you have to sacrifice the environment,
mental outlook and quality of life'
7.1.2 'US and British societies have seen a rise in
the last 30 years in come, teenage mothers,
vandalism etc.' Bonnett 2004.
7.1.3 China is now world 3rd biggest economy.
126.96.36.199 2030 predictions. 1. China,
2. USA, 3 India & 10 UK.
188.8.131.52.1 India predicted to be 5th
biggest within a decade.
184.108.40.206 Growing by 9/10 % PA.
7.2.1 'West has peaked with a sense of exhaustion,
however this is not seen in east Asia as they
chase their own blend of modernity'
220.127.116.11 'China's ancient modernity used to promote 2008 Olympics' Tzanelli 2010.
18.104.22.168.1 Paper and water clock.
22.214.171.124.2 'Modernity in China is reflective of a confucious
society drawn up in 500 BC' Cheng 2001.
126.96.36.199.2.1 'Chinas own development of modernity has gained
great support in China' Chang 2008.
188.8.131.52.2.1.1 'Different civilisations have different religious cores, which leads to
different pathways through modernity' Eisenstadt.
7.2.2 Europe and colonialism
184.108.40.206 ' The contradiction between modernised views and forced labour
is alarming' Neumayer 2007.
7.2.3 'Modernisation is the total
transformation of a traditional
society into the characteristic
'stable societies' of the west' Moore
220.127.116.11 'Modernity is not only economic stability but also cultural and polital' Apter 1965.
18.104.22.168.1 'modernity should be seen as a political project to centre
the west and marginalise the rest' Piot 1999.
7.3 A contested concept.
7.3.1 'Asia stopped at the Ural Mountains'. Tatischev.
22.214.171.124 'The expanse love for the ultimate and the
universal is the common thought inheritance of
every asiatic race' Okakura 1904.
126.96.36.199.1 'The modern towns are everywhere the same,
they show now faces only masks' Tagore.
188.8.131.52.1.1 'Bengal has not given Tagore to the west, more the west has
Given Tagore to the Bengalise' Chandra 1922.
184.108.40.206.1.1.1 ' I an oriental born and raised in
China don't know what oriental
civilisation is, Mr Tagore is a
swindler' Shen Yen-ping Cited Hay
220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168 4 tigers
22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.1 Late 80's early 90's.
188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.1.1 China followed.
220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.1.1.1 Now own 90% of East Asian economy
22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.3 South K
188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.4 Hong Kong
220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168 4 tiger cubs.
22.214.171.124.1.2 Tagore Knighted 1915.
126.96.36.199.2 36.4% of world pop in Ind and Chi
188.8.131.52.2.1 Asia grew X4 in the last century.
184.108.40.206 'Japan is in danger of no longer being an authentic part of Asia' Tagore.
220.127.116.11.1 'Asian man is at heart persona religiosis' Anwar
Ibraham, Malaysian deputy PM.
8.1.1 'World may be getting smaller but is becoming
interconnected and stretched' Giddens 1991
18.104.22.168 'Globalisation is a process of uneven
development' Giddens 1991
22.214.171.124 'Edward Said's Orientalism is frequently taken as the starting point of post colonial studies'
King 2003... It tells a great deal about the global development and the cultural history of the
east, however it is also argued that Said's work tells us more about who we are as the west
than what it actually tell us about the east' Ashcroft 2008.
126.96.36.199.1 'The orient is a western ideology' Said 1995.
8.1.2 'the world in one place'
Liverpool city of culture
8.2 'technological advances have lead to
the annihilation of space' Leyshon
8.3 'A borderless world, todays global
economy is genuinely borderless' Ohme
8.4 'Is globalisation really
happening or is it a myth?'
Hirst & Thompson 2000.