1 Organizing–is the to deployment of organizational resources to
achieve strategic goals. The deployment of resources is reflected
in the organizations division of labor into Pacific department send
jobs, formalizing authority, and mechanisms for coordinating
diverse organization tasks.
2 Organizing the vertical structure
2.1 Organization structure–designs how tasks are divided and resources deployed.
2.1.1 Defined as 1: the set of formal tasks assigned to individuals and departments, 2:
formal reporting relationships, including lines of authority, design responsibility,
number of hierarchical levels, and span of managers control: and 3 the design of
systems to ensure an effective coordination of employees across departments.
184.108.40.206 Organization chart: the visual representation of an organization's structure.
2.2 Work specialization
2.2.1 the degree to which organizational
tasks are subdivided into separate
2.3 Chain of Command
2.3.1 is an unbroken line of
authority that links all
employees in an
organization and shows
who reports to whom.
220.127.116.11 Unity of command:
means that each
employee is held
accountable to only
18.104.22.168 scalar principle: refers
to a clearly defined a
line of authority and the
includes all employees.
2.3.2 authority, responsibility, and delegation
22.214.171.124 authority- is the formal and legitimate
right of the manager to make
decisions, issue orders, and allocate
resources to achieve organizationally
126.96.36.199.1 1. Authority is vested in organizational positions, not people.
188.8.131.52.1.1 2. authority flows down the vertical hierarchy.
184.108.40.206.1.1.1 3. Authority is accepted by subordinates.
220.127.116.11 Responsibility–is the
duty to perform the task
or activity as assigned.
18.104.22.168.1 Accountability–means that
the people with authority and
responsibility are subject to
reporting and justifying task
outcomes to those opposed
to the chain of command.
22.214.171.124 Delegation-the process
managers use to transfer
authority and responsibility to
positions below them in the
2.3.3 Line and staff authority
126.96.36.199 Line departments-people in
management positions have
formal Authority to direct and
control immediate sub ordinates
188.8.131.52 Staff departments–include
all those that provide
specialized skills and
support of line
184.108.40.206 Line authority–means
that people in
have formal Authority to
direct and control
220.127.116.11 Staff authority–is
includes the right to
and counsel in the
staff specialist area
3 Span of management: the number of employees reporting
to a supervisor. Sometimes called the span of control, this
characteristic of structure determines how closely a
supervisor can monitor subordinates.
3.1 The following list describes the factors that are associated with less supervisor involved and thus larger spans of control.
3.1.1 1. work performed by subordinates and stable and routine.
18.104.22.168 2. subordinates perform similar work tasks.
22.214.171.124.1 3. Subordinates are concentrated in a single location.
126.96.36.199.1.1 4. subordinates are highly trained and need little direction in performing tasks.
188.8.131.52.1.1.1 5. rules and procedures defining task activities are available.
184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11 6. support systems and personnel are available for the manager.
18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.1 7. Little time is required in nonsupervisory activities such as coordination with other departments or planning.
126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.1.1 8. Managers' personal preferences and styles favor a large span.
3.1.2 tall structure:
has an overall
3.1.3 Flat structure: has a
wide span, is
dispersed, and has
4 Centralization and decentralization
4.1 Centralization:means that decision authority is located near the top of the organization.
4.1.1 Decentralization decision authority is pushed downward to lower organizational levels.
184.108.40.206 1. greater change and uncertainty in the environment are usually associated with decentralization.
220.127.116.11.1 2. the amount of centralization or decentralization should fit the firms strategy.
18.104.22.168.1.1 3. in times of crisis or risk of company failure call Authority may be centralized at the top.
5 Departmentalization: the basis for grouping
positions into departments and departments
into the total organization.
5.1 Vertical Functional Approach/Functional
approach: the group of positions into
departments based on similar skills, expertise,
work activities, and resource use.
5.1.1 Divisional approach: occurs when departments are
grouped together based on similar organizational
22.214.171.124 Matrix approach: Combines aspects of both functional
divisional structures simultaneously in the same part of
those who report
126.96.36.199.2 matrix boss:
is the product
boss, who is
for one side
of the matrix.
188.8.131.52.3 top leader:
184.108.40.206.4 Team approach
220.127.116.11.4.1 Cross functional teams: which consist of employees from various departments who are responsible to meet as a team and resolve mutual problems.
18.104.22.168.4.1.1 Permanent teams: groups of employees who are organized in a way similar to a formal department.
22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199 Team-based structure: the entire organization is made up of horizontal teams
that Courtney their work and work directly with customers to accomplish the
188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.1 The Virtual Network Approach: means that the furnace contracts
most of the major functions to separate companies important
their activities from a small headquarters organization.
220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.1.1 Modular Approach: in which a manufacturing company uses outside suppliers to
provide entire expense of the product try then assembled into the final product by A
6 Exhibit 10.9 page 278: Structural Advantages and Disadvantages
7 Organizing for Horizontal Coordination
7.1 Coordination: refers to the quality of collaboration across departments
7.1.1 Reengineering: refers to the radical redesign of business
processes to achieve dramatic improvements in cost,
quality, service, and speed.
8 Tasks Forces, Teams, and Project Management
8.1 task force: is a temporary committee designed to solve
a short-term problem involving several departments task
force members represent their departments and share
information that enables coordination.