First Arab-Israeli war, 1948 (The war of independence)

Monty Kirk
Mind Map by , created over 5 years ago

Mind Map on First Arab-Israeli war, 1948 (The war of independence), created by Monty Kirk on 05/20/2014.

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Monty Kirk
Created by Monty Kirk over 5 years ago
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First Arab-Israeli war, 1948 (The war of independence)
1 Invasion of Israel by neighbouring Arab states (Notably Egypt, Syria and Jordan + other members of the Arab League) to support the Palestinian Arabs in an attempt to overthrow the Jewish state
2 Pattern and development of the war
2.1 Phase 3, Oct 1948- Jan 1949: Israelis now had upper hand pushing back the exhausted Arabs, the only Arab force which fought with distinction was Jordan’s Arab Legion which held onto Eastern Jerusalem. The Egyptians were pushed back to Gaza and the Sinai, the Syrians to the Golan Heights
2.2 Phase 1, May-June 1948: Arabs pushed deep into Israel, Israelis fought desperately and seemingly against the odds managed to hold off attacks. A UN ceasefire was agreed in late June.(under Count Bernadotte)
2.3 Phase 2, July-Sept 1948: Jews rearmed and resupplied during the ceasefire (bought arms from Czechoslovakia). This enabled them to push back the Arabs in many places. A second ceasefire was brokered in late-July. Bernadotte now put forward proposals for a partitioned Palestine guaranteeing Arab rights and the return of refuges who had fled (the Israelis rejected this and Bernadotte was assassinated by the Stern Gang in Sept 1948)
3 Reasons for Israeli victory: Palestinian and Arab forces were not as effective as might be thought (lack of united fighting action, exhaustion of attack), Arabs also acted in own self-interest (signed separate truces when it suited, e.g. Jordan when they had taken the West Bank), effectiveness of the Israelis (Haganah had experience in fighting Arab rebels, many had fought in WW2 with the British so were well-trained), 1948 ceasefire allowed them to re-supply with better military equipment (these were largely paid for by foreign donations by Jews, particularly from the US), the Israelis were fighting for homeland whereas the Arabs lacked resolution when it became tough
4 Consequences of the 1948 war: survival for the state of Israel, the state of Israel was now over 80% of the land Palestine had been (more than would have been allocated in the Partition Plan. However Egypt still had Gaza, Jordan the West Bank and Syria the Golan Heights), mass (about 800,000) migration of Palestinians refugees into neighbouring states, Arab states failed to recognise Israel and vowed to destroy it. Israel emerged as a nation on high-alert due to a fear of more attacks (Fedayeen fighter cross-border raids). Israel grew swiftly after 1948- in the next six years the population more than doubled (from 770,000 to 1.7m)
5 Nature of support for Israel from USA (and other states): From 1945 the US had supported the creation of Israel, In 1946 President Truman demanded the immediate entry of 100,000 migrating Jews into Israel, in 1947 both the US and USSR supported the creation of Israel and both were among the first to recognise it in 1948. this political support was supplemented by financial support, the US government have the new state of Israel $65m in aid as a ‘start-up fund’ but million more was donated by private investors. The US government then turned a blind-eye to military equipment sold to Israel from the US after 1948. Some countries did agree to sell equipment directly (e.g. the French who sold aircraft to the Israeli Air Force in the 1950s)

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