Economic reform under Witte 1893-1903

Mind Map by eveannesley, updated more than 1 year ago


Mind Map on Economic reform under Witte 1893-1903, created by eveannesley on 05/21/2014.
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Economic reform under Witte 1893-1903
1 aims
1.1 to modernise Russia so that it could compete with the West
1.2 tsar's aims:
1.2.1 to improve the strength of the Russian armed forces
1.3 'Russia has the right and strength not to want to remain the handmaiden of states that are more developed economically'
2 Methods Witte used
2.1 state capitalism
2.1.1 acquire capital for investment in industry large loans/ investment abroad heavy taxes and high interest rates at home
2.1.2 protective tarriffs
2.2 1897: gold standard
2.2.1 financial stability to encourage international investment
2.3 invited foreign experts/workers to advise
3 railways
3.1 Witte believed modernisation was reliant on an effective transport system
3.2 1881: 13,270 miles of track
3.2.1 1913: 43,850
3.3 Transiberian railway 1891-1902
3.3.1 Moscow --> Vladivostok connected remoter regions of empire to industrial west to encourage migration of workers
4 Successes/Failures
4.1 Successes
4.1.1 1890: Coal=5.9 millions of tons, Oil=3.9 1910: Coal= 26.8, Oil= 9.4
4.1.2 1898-1913 96.8% growth
4.1.3 Considering level of backwardness
4.2 Failures
4.2.1 made Russia dependent on foreign loans
4.2.2 gave priority to heavy industry so neglected other industry/ agriculture
4.2.3 disliked/distrusted by tsar, dismissed in 1906
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