The Rise of Anti-Semitism in Angevin England (1154-1213)

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Created by meganswailes over 5 years ago
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The Rise of Anti-Semitism in Angevin England (1154-1213)
1 Henry II's Reign
1.1 Social
1.1.1 The Jews first came into England with William the Conqueror from Anjou though were first documented to be in England in 1140's. They were a minority very different from the English in many aspects.
1.1.2 They wore different clothes, ate different foods, celebrated fifferent holidays and had a different religion to the English
1.1.3 As Jews weren't obliged to follow church law they were the only ones able to loan money and so even their occupations were defining and very different from the christians in England.
1.1.4 The Jews kept very much to themselves and travelled a lot so made few social connections. They often lived outside of city gates in their own communities.
1.2 Financial
1.2.1 From 1164 Henry II borrowed money from only Jewish money lenders. This drew attention to them and increased baronial hostility as well as church dissaproval.
1.2.2 Aaron of Lincoln died in 1186. He was found to be one of if not the richest man in Northern England leaving behind hundreds who owed him money.
1.2.3 A seperate Exchequer was set up to deal with the Aaron's finances after his death as all money owed to Aaron was now to be paid to the king. (Exchequer of Aaron)
1.2.4 Even Becket borrowed from the Jews to fund his campaign against Toulouse in 1159.
1.2.5 Isaac fil Jurnet was also one of the richest men in England and lent to the abbey of Westminster.
1.2.6 On the death of all Jews their any debts owed to them were then owed to the king. Henry therefore took a special interest in the Jews.
1.2.7 Christians had to borrow from Jews as nobody else was to be involved in usury. The aritocracy therefore despised the Jews as they had to pay them back the money at interests of up to 66%
1.3 Relationship with the King/Angevin Despotism
1.3.1 The Jews were under the King's protection. which came at a price The Jews and all of their properties were seen as posessions of the crown.
1.3.2 In 1164 Henry II stopped borrowing money from christian money lenders and used Jews like Aaron of Lincoln instea\d. He believed them to be richer and easier to exploit.
1.3.3 Henry, from the start of his reign, made it a point to restrict the power of the barons who haad become too powerful during Stephen's reign. The barons resented the king for limiting their power and in turn resented the jews who were so strongly assosiated with Henry and his finances.
1.3.4 When Aaron of Lincoln died and his huge wealth became evident Henry II realised the profitabe potential of the Jews. By the end of his reign he had begun taxing the Jews almost systematically. Again this fuelled baronial resentment.
1.3.5 Under Henry II's Assize ot Arms the King ordered that Jews were not to own arms or armour. They couldn't own wearpons to protect themselves and so relied on the kings for protection even mroe.
1.4 Ecclesiastical (The Church)
1.4.1 The third Laterean Councel condemmned usury. This was therefore a job left to the Jews who were then seen as sinners for loaning money.
1.4.2 Though the church didn't promote violence and discrimination against the Jews during Henry's reign directly they did little to stop it.
1.4.3 The church recognised the Jews as different and warned christians against socialising with them.
1.4.4 The church didn't force baptism on Jews during Henry II's reign though they made it a point to identify Jews as unsaved sinners increasing hostility and visibility.
1.5 Blood Libel
1.5.1 Jews accused of ritual murder. They were thought to have murdered a boy; William or Norwich in 1144 for his blood. The boy was made a saint suggesting the Church were against the Jews. Other similar murdered followed and so hostility increased throughout Henry II and Richard's reign. This climaxed in 1190 in the North.
1.5.2 1144 William of Norwich
1.5.3 Gloucester 1168
1.5.4 Bury St Edmunds 1181
2 Richard I's Reign
2.1 Crusades and Religious Fervour
2.1.1 Richard was crowned king in 1189 and left only a few months later to lead the third crusade.
2.1.2 Knights and noblemen were joining the expensive crusade to the Holy Land and so were borrowing from the Jews increasingly. They had to pay back the Jews at huge interest increasing hostility towards the money lenders.
2.1.3 The idea of the Jews commiting deicide was spread during the time of the crusades. They were seen as the 'more accesible' enemies of Christ as they were much closer and more vulnerable than the muslims.
2.1.4 With Richard on crusade he wasn't there to protect the Jews, his property, from all of this increased hostility.
2.2 Finance
2.2.1 During Richards reign a systematic exploiting of the Jews came about. With increased funds the crusade and Richard's ransom demanded they were taxed heavily.
2.2.2 Kights and noblemen needed money to fund their journey to the Holy Land and so had to borrow from the Jews at huge interests.
2.2.3 In 1190 the York Pogrom took place. One of the main motives lying behind it was finance. After the Jews were massacred at Clifford's tower the Archa was found and documents containing loan information was burned.

Annotations:

  • Involved => Richard Malebisse (ringleader, warden) John Marshal (Sheriff)
2.2.4 1194- Richard reorganised English Jewry. He set up the 'Exchequer of the Jews' which supervised the affairs of the Jews. It was presided over by Justices. Richard could now track the Jew's financial affairs more effectvley and gain from them easier. The York pogrom also motivated Richard to improve the way Jewish financial documents were stored and accessed. They were now stored in an Achre which required the presence of certain number of people. Documents were also split into two matching halfs so that the debtor and debtee knew how much to pay and who to.
2.2.5 The Jews were forced to pay 3x as much money towards Richard's ransom before his return inn 1194.
2.2.6 several tallages and levies a minimum of 20,000 marks between 1189 and 1194
2.3 Baronial Hostility
2.3.1 Barons and aristocracy still associated Jews with the Angevin Despotism and despised them for it.
2.3.2 Barons and aristocracy made up a large percentage of people who borrowed from Jews and so disliked the fact that they had to pay the Jews money or give their lands iver when payment was due. They also disliked the idea that when Jews died they owed the king.
2.3.3 Northern barons who owed Jews money played big parts in the York Pogrom (1190). This financially motivated hostility from the barons fuelled the burning of the Jew's documents as it meant their debts were cleared- no proof of ever owing money.
2.4 Relationship with the king
2.4.1 The King was still seen the 'owner' and protector of the Jews. This lead to the idea of Jews being little more than objects.
2.4.2 With Richard gone on the third crusade and then kept in custody until 1194 the Jews were seen as vulnerable. Their protector was absent and on crusade no less. This motivated the many attacks on the Jews between 1190 and 1194.
2.4.3 At Richard's corronation at Westminster he refused to allow the Jews in. Barons and locals misunderstood this as hostility and so when Jews arrived they were killed and chased away. This prompted an all out riot against the Jews and their communities. Richard was angered though he didn't respond with a very harsh punishment suggesting to his barons and subjects he didn't care very much. This leinient reaction may have prompted the pogrom at York one year later.
2.4.4 Richard made Jews surrender 1/4 of their moveable property between 1186-1194
3 John's Reign
3.1 Relationship with king
3.1.1 Jews were still regarded the property of Enlgish kings and were still under their protection.
3.1.2 John charged the Jews 4000m for royal protection and privellages plus 1/10 of the value of their debts.
3.1.3 Jews were increasingly dehumanised during John's reign as he tallaged them at will at saw them as little more than money machines
3.1.4 Jews were a big financial aid for John and contributed to funds for his campaign after 1204. The Jews were therefore seen as sponges who funded the greedy Angevin kings. The Jews were seen to be increasing royal power through means of finance. This was exactly the thing the barons didn't want.
3.1.5 John appointed Jews to high status jobs. E.g Leo of Norwich was roya goldsmith
3.1.6 1199- John pardoned York Pogrom leader Richard Malebisse and restored his property
3.1.7 1203- John was forced to remind mayor of London that Jews were under royal protection

Annotations:

  • "If we had given our peace to dogs it ought to be involiably observed" King John to Mayor of London
3.2 Finance
3.2.1 The loss of Normandy impacted the Jews greatly. Trade and business links were cut off and Jews were vulnerable- seen as money machines by John. E.g I saac of Norwich fines 10,000 marks to contribute twd campaign for continetall lands.
3.2.2 1210- Bristol tallage imposed. Believed to be around £40,000. John ordered arrest of all Jews until tallage was payed. Property was confiscated and people like Isaac of Canterbury were even hamged.
3.2.3 1213/1214 another large scale seizing and counting of property of Jews. Sheriffs put pressure on Jews to pay large amounts of money. Many killed, imprisoned and some fled and not allowed back until they vowed to pay.
3.2.4 During John's reign Enland was still suffering from the financial exactions Richard brought. With his main mission being to reclaim his lands on the continent he needed money - lots of it. He taaxted everyone more tham double the amount of tax his predeccesors had. He focussed on the Jews as they were rich and regarded his property anyway. He took advantage of their wealth.
3.3 Baronial Hostility
3.4 Religious and Social
3.4.1 Philip expelled Jews from his lands in 1182 so many refugees sought safety in England. Increasing number = increasing hostility from christians as numbers peaked in John's reign
3.4.2 4th Lateran Council 1213 demanded Jews had to wear special dress to distinguish themselves from christians
3.4.3 Jews were still seen as pariahs and envied from their wealth and special royal privelleges e.g Jews could be tried by their own people and swear on the Torah.

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