C6- Chemical Synthesis

charliebutler
Mind Map by charliebutler, updated more than 1 year ago
charliebutler
Created by charliebutler almost 6 years ago
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Mind Map on C6- Chemical Synthesis, created by charliebutler on 06/07/2014.

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C6- Chemical Synthesis
1 Chemical synthesis
1.1 Process of making complex chemical compounds from simpler ones
1.2 Useful products are made
1.2.1 Food additives
1.2.2 Cleaning and decorating products
1.2.3 Pharmeceutical drugs
1.2.4 Fertilisers
2 Chemicals can be produced on a large or small scale
3 Pharmeceutical industry has largest share of chemical industry
4 Acids and Alkalis
4.1 Used in chemical industry
4.1.1 Alkalis
4.1.1.1 Sodium Hydroxide
4.1.1.2 Ph of more than 7
4.1.1.3 Can neutralise acids in chemical industry
4.2 Acids
4.2.1 Ph of less than 7
4.2.2 Used in chemical industry
5 Indicators
5.1 Change colour depending on whether substance is acid or alkaline
5.2 Litmus paper
5.2.1 If paper turns red; solution is acidic
5.2.2 If paper turns blue; soultion is alkaline
5.3 Ph meters are more accurate than indicators
6 Neutralisation reactions
6.1 Acidic compounds produce aqueous hydrogen ions in water
6.2 Alkaline compounds produce aqueous hydroxide ions in water
6.3 Acid + Alkali- Salt + Water
7 Acids reacting with metals
7.1 Acid + Metal- Salt + Hydrogen
7.1.1 Hydrogen is confirmed by a 'squeaky pop' test
7.2 The more reactive the metal, the quicker the reaction
7.3 Hydrochloric acid will always produce Chloride salts
7.3.1 Hydrochloric acid + Magnesium- Magnesium Chloride + Hydrogen
7.4 Sulfuric acid will produce Sulfate salts
7.4.1 Magnesium + Sulfuric acid- Magnesium Sulfate
8 Metal Oxides and Metal Hydroxides
8.1 Acid + Metal Oxide- Salt + Water
8.1.1 Acid + Metal Hydroxide- Salt + Water
8.1.1.1 Hydrochloric acid + Sodium Hydroxide- Sodium Chloride + Water
8.1.2 Hydrochloric acid + Copper Oxide- Copper Chloride + Water
9 Metal Carbonates
9.1 Acid + Metal Carbonate- Salt + Water + Carbon Dioxide
9.1.1 Hydrochloric acid + sodium carbonate- sodium chloride + water + carbon dioxide
10 Synthesising Compounds
10.1 1.) Choose the reaction
10.1.1 2.) Risk Assessment
10.1.1.1 3.) Calculate quantities of reactants needed
10.1.1.1.1 4.) Choose correct apparatus and conditions
10.1.1.1.1.1 5.) Isolate product
10.1.1.1.1.1.1 6.) Purification
10.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 7.) Measure yield and purity
11 Calculating Masses in Reactions
12 Purification and Measuring Yield
12.1 Filtration
12.1.1 Used to seperate an insoluble solid from a liquid
12.1.1.1 Solid impurities can be seperated out
12.2 Evaporation and Crystallisation
12.3 Evaporation and Crystallisation
12.3.1 Used to seperate a soluble solid from solution
12.3.1.1 Filters out impurities
12.4 Drying
12.4.1 Used to dry the project by removing excess liquid
13 Percentage Yield
13.1 Actual Yield
13.1.1 Mass of a pure, dry product
13.2 Theoritical Yield
13.2.1 Maximum possible mass of a product
13.3 Percentage Yield
13.3.1 Actual yield as a proportion of theoritical yield
13.3.1.1 Actual Yield divided by theoritical yield X 100
13.3.1.1.1 Percentage yield will always be less than 100 percent
14 Titrations
14.1 Carried out using a burette
14.1.1 Used to check purity of acidic or alkaline products
14.1.1.1 They work using neutralisation reactions
14.1.1.1.1 You add acid into the burette; which allows you to measure it out drop by drop
14.1.1.1.1.1 The titration flask at the bottom contains alkali and indicator, if it turns a certain colour you know its an acid
14.2 Only works with liquids
15 Energy transfer in Reactions
15.1 Exothermic reactions
15.1.1 Give out heat
15.1.2 Shown by a rise in temperature
15.2 Endothermic reactions
15.2.1 Take in heat
15.2.2 Shown by a fall in temperature
15.3 Energy management is important to control reactions
15.3.1 In exothermic reactions, the heat must be removed before temperature becomes too hot
15.3.2 In endothermic reactions, heat needs to be provided, otherwise reaction will become too cold
16 Rates of Reaction
16.1 How fast the reactants are turned into products
16.2 Its important to control
16.2.1 For safety
16.2.2 For economic reasons
16.3 The faster the rate, the less money is spent
16.4 Factors that affect rate
16.4.1 1.) Temperature
16.4.2 2.) Concentration
16.4.3 3.) Catalyst added
17 Collision Theory
17.1 Depends on how often and how hard reacting particles collide with each other
17.1.1 Rate of reaction
17.2 Rate of reaction depends on four things
17.2.1 1.) Temperature
17.2.1.1 Particles move faster
17.2.1.1.1 They'll collide more frequently
17.2.1.1.2 They'll have more energy
17.2.2 2.) Concentration
17.2.2.1 More particles makes collisions more likely
17.2.2.1.1 Increases rate
17.2.3 3.) Catalyst
17.2.3.1 Increases speed of reaction
17.2.3.1.1 Encourages colliding particles to stick to where they will collide most frequently
17.2.4 4.) Surface area
17.2.4.1 There will be more space; so an increased chance of particle collision
18 Measuring Rates of Reaction
18.1 Rate of reaction= Amount of reactant used or product formed divided by time
18.2 1.) Precipitation and colour change
18.3 2.) Change in mass
18.4 3.) Volume of gas given off
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