Section 1- Principles of Chemistry (part 2)

beccalaw7
Mind Map by , created over 5 years ago

Cambridge IGCSE Chemistry (Section 1- Principles of Chemistry) Mind Map on Section 1- Principles of Chemistry (part 2), created by beccalaw7 on 06/07/2014.

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beccalaw7
Created by beccalaw7 over 5 years ago
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Section 1- Principles of Chemistry (part 2)
1 Electron Shells
1.1 Nucleus
1.1.1 1st Shell= 2 electrons
1.1.1.1 2nd Shell= 8 electrons
1.1.1.1.1 3rd Shell= 8 electrons
1.2 Atoms= happy when they're outer shell is full
1.2.1 Therefore they react with other atoms to complete their shells
1.3 Electronic configuration= 2,8,8 ect..
2 Ionic Bonding+ Ionic Compounds
2.1 ALL ATOMS WANT THEIR LAST SHELL TO BE FULL
2.2 If the atom only has 1 electron in its outer shell then it wants to get rid of it.
2.2.1 This atom would love to react with one with 7 in its outer shell because this one wants one more, there's too many to give away!
2.3 ion: "an atom or molecule with a net electric charge due to the loss or gain of one or more electrons"
2.4 Group 1 and 2 elements are metals and lose electrons to form +ve ions (cations)
2.5 Group 6 and 7 elements are non-metals and gain electrons to form -vs ions (anions)
3 Covalent Bonding+ Covalent substances
3.1 A covalent bond is a shared pair of electrons
3.2 Both atoms have a full outer shell and they are happy
3.3 Strong attraction between the shared electron pair and the nuclei of the atoms involved
3.4 Diamond+Graphite
3.4.1 Diamond=hardest substance in world! +makes 4 bonds per carbon atom
3.4.2 Graphite= Conducts electricity+makes 3 bonds per carbon atom
4 Balencing Equations
4.1 Word Equation= copper + oxygen = copper oxide
4.1.1 Symbol Equation= 2Cu + O2 = 2CuO
4.2 State symbols= Solid (s) Liquid (l) Gas (g) Aqueous (dissolved in water (a))
4.3 Practise Questions
4.4 You have to have the same amount of everything on either side of an equation or it will be sad
5 Isotopes and Relative Atomic Mass
5.1 An isotope is a different version of an atom
5.2 Carbon isotopes:
5.3 They have the same number of protons but a different number on neutrons
5.4 How to calculate relative atomic mass:
5.4.1 (mass of isotope x % abundance) + (mass of isotope x % abundance) ___________________________________________________________ 100
5.4.1.1 E.g. Boron= (11x80) + (20x10) ------------------ 100
5.4.1.1.1 = 10.8
6 Relative Formula Mass
6.1 Look at elements atomic mass on periodic table
6.1.1 Use the numbers to add up masses of formulas
6.2 E.g. MgCl2
6.2.1 Mg= 24
6.2.2 Cl= 35.5
6.2.3 24+35.5+35.5= 95