Personality - Shows how people are different - Different theories = Type. Trait. Factors, Bio.

cutiemcpouty
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Degree with Hons Personality - DSE 212 Mind Map on Personality - Shows how people are different - Different theories = Type. Trait. Factors, Bio., created by cutiemcpouty on 05/20/2013.

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cutiemcpouty
Created by cutiemcpouty over 6 years ago
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Personality - Shows how people are different - Different theories = Type. Trait. Factors, Bio.
1 Studied via :
1.1 MOSTLY Nomothetic - Scientific / Quantitative
1.1.1 Questionnaires
1.1.2 Based on Laws of Behaviour and can be generalised to everyone
1.1.2.1 Used to compare people with one another
1.1.3 STATISTICAL TECHNIQUES
1.2 Idiographic - Qualitative / Uniqueness
1.2.1 Case Studies, interviews - reflect uniqueness
2 Personality IS :
2.1 Characteristics of - Behaviour, attitudes, capabilities & interests
2.1.1 Its unique and means different things to different people
2.1.1.1 Should help predict future behaviour - and put people into brackets
2.2 CONSISTENT - Developed over a lifetime
2.3 RELATIVELY STABLE
3 Personally - Helps us make sense of ourselves and others
3.1 Professionally - lets us assess people by groups - schemas or stereotyping- tell if suited to a job
3.1.1 Ie - always early
3.1.1.1 A personality theory should describe STRUCTURE and DYNAMICS of how the behaviour is produced., Explain why they are always early.
4 TRAIT THEORIES
4.1 GALTON -1822 - 1911
4.1.1 Introduced PSYCHOMETRICS = collection of data that describes the range (highest/lowest) and distribution of INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN PERSONALITY
4.1.1.1 PSYCHOMETRICS SIMPLIFIED = MEASUREMENT OF PERSONALITY
4.2 Offers Consistency - people are consistent to the world and each other.
4.2.1 Difference between TRAIT (constant characteristic) and STATE (short lived experience) = eg might be a punctual person but traffic might mean you are late.
4.2.1.1 TRAITS remain constant - eg people with a punctuality trait prefer to be early.
4.3 INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES APPROACH
4.3.1 EG - Reliable - Unreliable or Introvert - Extrovert
4.3.1.1 Connects
4.4 TRAITS
4.4.1 PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTIC THAT MAKES SOMEONE DIFFERENT FROM ANOTHER
4.4.1.1 OR ..DESCRIBES INDIVIDUAL'S PERSONALITY
4.4.2 TRAIT SCORES
4.4.2.1 Continuous variable - person gives number score to show how much of a trait that person has
4.4.3 GREAT MANY TRAITS TO DECRIBE PEOPLE
4.4.3.1 A person can be described on EVERY TRAIT
4.4.4 WORDS TO DESCRIBE TRAITS:
4.4.4.1 EXTRAVERSION, INTERVERSION, NEUROTICISM
4.4.4.1.1 THESE TRAITS CAN ALSO BE CONSIDERED FACTORS BECAUSE THEY ARE SO BROAD
4.4.5 TYPES OF TRAIT
4.4.5.1 SURFACE TRAITS
4.4.5.1.1 Traits that SEEM apparent/obvious
4.4.5.1.1.1 Eg - Librarian who's friendly - presume Trait =SOCIABLE
4.4.5.1.2 SURFACE TRAITS based on PEOPLES PERCEPTION of PERSONALITY
4.4.5.1.2.1 -'S = NOT ALWAYS BEST DESCRIPTION OF UNDERLYING PERSONALITY DIMENSION
4.4.5.2 SOURCE TRAITS
4.4.5.2.1 DEEPER PATTERNS OF UNDERLYING PERSONALITY
4.4.5.2.2 EMERGE despite differences in TESTING SITU
4.4.5.2.2.1 Eg Questionnaire, methods etc.
4.4.5.2.2.2 ERIKSON
4.4.5.2.3 The SCORES on ALL FACTORS in the PROFILE of the INDIVIDUAL
4.4.5.2.4 CATTELL = FACTOR ANALYSIS to IDENTIFY 16 SOURCE TRAITS = which DEVELOPED 16PF
4.4.5.2.4.1 CATTELL 16PF 1977
4.4.5.2.4.2 COSTA & McCRAE 1992 = BIG 5 = OCEAN - MORE GENERAL MEANING MORE LEVELS OF UNIQUNESS
4.4.5.2.4.2.1 NOTE = FACTOR THEORY / TRAITS = WIDER THAN TRAIT THEORY
4.4.5.2.4.2.2 O = OPENNESS
4.4.5.2.4.2.2.1 C = CONTIENCIOUSNESS
4.4.5.2.4.2.2.1.1 E = EXTROVERSION
4.4.5.2.4.2.2.1.1.1 A = AGREEABLENESS
4.4.5.2.4.2.2.1.1.1.1 N = NEUROTICISM
4.4.5.2.4.2.2.1.1.1.1.1 ANXIOUS, DEPRESSED, GUILTY FEELINGS, LOW SELF ESTEEM, IRRATIONAL, MOODY, SHY EMOTIONAL
4.4.5.2.4.2.2.1.1.1.2 LIKABLENESS
4.4.5.2.4.2.2.1.1.2 HIGH EXTRAVERSION = TALKATIVE, PASSIONATE, ACTIVE, DOMINANT & SOCIABLE
4.4.5.2.4.2.2.1.2 HARDWORKING, DEPENDABLE, RESPONSABLE, DEPENDABLE, TENACIOUS
4.4.5.2.4.2.2.2 HOW CULTURED, INTELLIGENT, RECEPTIVE WE ARE TO NEW IDEAS, PLACES AND INTERESTS
4.4.5.2.4.2.3 RELIABLE / & VALID
4.4.5.2.4.2.4 ALSO MAIN PERSONALITY INVENTORY = NEO-PI
4.4.5.2.4.2.4.1 NEUROTIC, EXTRAVERSION, OPENNESS
4.4.5.2.4.3 RELIABLE &VALID
4.4.5.2.5 GOLDBERG
4.4.5.2.5.1 PROPOSED ANOTHER BIG 5
4.4.5.2.5.1.1 SIMILAR TO COSTA & McCRAE EXCWPT HAS INTERLLECT AS A FACTOR INSTEAD OF OPENNESS
4.4.5.2.5.2 SEEKS TO DESCRIBE PERSONALITY
4.4.5.2.5.3 FACTOR 1 = EXTRAVERSION
4.4.5.2.5.3.1 FACTOR 2 = AGREEABLENESS
4.4.5.2.5.3.1.1 FACTOR 3 = CONSCIENCIOUSNESS
4.4.5.2.5.3.1.1.1 FACTOR 4 = EMOTIONAL STABILITY
4.4.5.2.5.3.1.1.1.1 FACTOR 5 = INTERLECT
4.5 CATTELL
4.5.1 Caattell's Trait Theory
4.5.1.1 INDUCTIVE METHOD
4.5.1.1.1 Vast amount of information gathered over years. Established 16 point PERSONALITY FACTOR QUESTIONNAIRE (16PF)
4.5.1.1.1.1 Traits divided into :
4.5.1.1.1.1.1 COMMON TRAITS
4.5.1.1.1.1.2 UNIQUE TRAITS
4.5.1.1.1.2 This method created 35 PRIMARY/FIRST ORDER TRAITS
4.5.1.1.1.3 Needed METHOD to gather RELIABLE + VALID information
4.5.1.1.1.4 BEST KNOWN PERSONALITY TEST 16 PF
4.5.1.1.1.4.1 CAN BE USED WITH EVERYDAY PEOPLE AND CLINICALLY
4.5.1.1.1.4.2 DATA TYPES
4.5.1.1.1.4.2.1 Q- DATA
4.5.1.1.1.4.2.1.1 QUESTIONNAIRE DATA
4.5.1.1.1.4.2.1.1.1 ASKING PEOPLE TO DESCRIBE THEMSELVES IN RESPONSE TO QUS.
4.5.1.1.1.4.2.1.1.1.1 MULTIPLE CHOICE/TRUE FALSE
4.5.1.1.1.4.2.1.1.1.2 +'S = Easy to do. Quick to get info
4.5.1.1.1.4.2.1.1.1.3 -'s people can manipulate score = lie
4.5.1.1.1.4.2.2 T- DATA
4.5.1.1.1.4.2.2.1 OBJECTIVE TEST DATA
4.5.1.1.1.4.2.2.2 COLLECTED BY PEOPLE TAKING PHYSICAL, PROJECTIVE AND REACTION TIMES TESTS - (not obvious what its to achieve)
4.5.1.1.1.4.2.2.2.1 +'S - Reduce CHEATING
4.5.1.1.1.4.2.2.3 -'S - May be LITTLE USE
4.5.1.1.1.4.2.3 L- DATA
4.5.1.1.1.4.2.3.1 LIFE RECORD DATA
4.5.1.1.1.4.2.3.1.1 GATHERED BY GAINING PERSONS LIFE HISTORY - (PERSONAL RECORDS)
4.5.1.1.1.4.2.3.1.1.1 GRADES, DRIVING HISTORY, LETTERS OF ACHIEVEMENT
4.5.1.1.1.4.2.3.1.1.1.1 +'S - INFO WITHOUT participant fillling out QUESTIONNAIRES
4.5.1.1.1.4.2.3.1.2 -'s - LIMITED INFO ABOUT PARTICIPANT
4.5.1.1.1.4.2.3.1.3 LONG TIME TO ANALYSE
4.5.2 Wanted to systematically describe personality
5 FACTOR ANALYSIS
5.1 STATISTICAL TECHNIQUE - showing personality dimensions.
5.1.1 Simplified version of Trait Theory eg lots of traits for trait theory, fewer factors for Factor Analysis.
6 FACTORS
6.1 Aim to SUMMARISE things between variables into a smaller pattern - more generalised.
6.1.1 They describe the IMPORTANT DIMENSION OF INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES
6.1.1.1 Basically A smaller number of FACTORS decribes ALL PEOPLE.. and gives greater FLEXABILITY
6.1.1.1.1 Person can be described on all factors
6.1.1.1.2 FACTORS :
6.1.1.1.2.1 INTERVERTED, EXTRAVERTED, NEUROTIC
6.2 FACTOR THEORY/TRAITS WIDER THAN TRAIT THEORY - TRAIT THEORY = SPECIFIC
7 BIOLOGY
7.1 BIOLOGICAL APPROACH TO STUDYING PERSONALITY
7.1.1 LOOKS FOR BIO REASONS/ CAUSES
7.1.1.1 MOODS / HORMONES/ TEMPERAMENT /MEDICATION/HERETABILITY
7.1.1.1.1 3/4 OF PERSONALITY DIMENSIONS ACCOUNTED BY HEREDITY
7.1.1.1.1.1 EXIST CROSS CULTURE
7.1.1.1.2 STABILITY OF TRAITS OVER TIME
7.1.1.1.3 TWIN RESEARCH MORE PREFERED
7.1.1.1.3.1 TWIN RESEARCH SUGGESTS - STRONG SIMILARITIES ON THESE DIMENTIONS
7.1.1.1.3.1.1 MZ
7.1.1.1.3.1.2 DZ
7.2 GRAY
7.3 BUSS & PLOMIN
7.3.1 STUDY OF TEMPREMENT
7.3.1.1 BIRTH - TEENAGE
7.3.1.2 3 PERSONALITY TRAITS THAT ARE INHERITED3
7.3.1.2.1 EMOTIONALLITY
7.3.1.2.1.1 ACTIVITY
7.3.1.2.1.1.1 SOCIABILITY
8 TYPE THEORY
8.1 PERSONALITY DETERMINED BY BIOLOGY + TYPE DETERMINES BEHAVIOUR
8.1.1 TYPE = ALL/NOTHING THING. PERSON BELONGS TO ONE CATEGORY ONLY
8.1.1.1 SMALLER NO OF TYPES DESCRIBES EVERYONE
8.1.1.1.1 NOTE = ONE CAT ONLY
8.2 EYSENCK
8.2.1 PERSONALITY DIMENSIONS
8.2.1.1 NEUROTICISM - EMOTIONAL STABILITY
8.2.1.1.1 INTROVERSION - EXTRAVERSION
8.2.1.1.1.1 INTRO = OVER AROUSED
8.2.1.1.1.2 EXTRA = UNDER AROUSED
8.2.2 EYSENCK = 4 INVENTORIES FOR SUPERFACTORS
8.2.2.1 MAUDSLEY PERSONALITY INVENTORY
8.2.2.2 EYSENCK PERSONALITY INVENTORY = EPI
8.2.2.2.1 EYSENCK PERSONALITY QUESTIONNAIRE = EPQ
8.2.2.2.1.1 REVISED TO EPQ - R
8.2.3 BIOLOGY LINK

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