Factors of Independence

Tom Lea
Mind Map by , created over 6 years ago

GCSE and A-Levels Unit 2 India Mind Map on Factors of Independence, created by Tom Lea on 05/20/2013.

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Factors of Independence
1 Economy
1.1 Indian imports fell 1928/29 £83 million 1935/36 £39 million

Annotations:

  • Boycotts especially cloth
1.1.1 Gradual decline in revenue from india
1.2 1931 Reserve Bank of India
1.2.1 Exchange rate no longer tied to sterling
1.2.1.1 Imports more expensive, exports not so profitable - Britain makes less money from Ind.
1.3 Impact of WW2
1.3.1 Cost of rebuilding in Britain after Blitz
1.3.2 By the end the war was costing £70 million a day
1.4 The cost of running the empire had increased to £1.4 billion p.a by the end of the war
2 Labour
2.1 Socialist, ideological belief that independence is the right thing
2.1.1 Complete change from Churchill - imperialist - would never have given up India, what ever the financial cost
2.2 Economy
2.2.1 Need to rebuild Britain
2.2.2 Want to increase social reforms such as NHS

Annotations:

  • Labour's social welfare reforms were hugely expensive - NHS cost £400 million in first year 
3 CommunalViolence/ civil unrest
3.1 Britain worried they cannot control India
3.1.1 1946 Direct Action Day resulted in Calcutta killings

Annotations:

  • It is thought that the Chief Minister of Bengal incited the violence against local Hindus.  It is also now believed that the underworld criminal gangs took advantage and exploited the initial trouble that broke out. There were hartals held all over  India that were peaceful
3.1.1.1 Communal violence spread - break down in law and order rioting and migration across Northern India

Annotations:

  • Revenge killings - e.g. 20,000 Bihari Muslims killed.
3.1.2 1921 Chauri Chaura
3.1.3 1922 Moplah Rebellion
3.1.4 1946 Bombay Mutiny

Annotations:

  • 20,000 sailors took control of their ships. Britain needed Congress to get it under control
3.2 Demobbed soldiers still had weapons
4 International Pressure
4.1 Wilson's 14 points, one was national self determination
4.2 Atlantic Charter 1941
4.3 Crips Mission 1942
4.4 Debt - war time loans
4.4.1 Total Brit debt by 1945 £21 billion - largely in loans from U.S

Annotations:

  • That's about £630 billion at today's prices!
  • That's about £630 billion in 2015 prices
4.5 U.S disapproval long known - e.g. Webber's account of Dharasana read out in U.S Congress
5 Mountbatten

Annotations:

  • Final viceroy - bisexual!
5.1 Determind to create a quick transfer of power
5.1.1 Stated aim was to leave by Aug 1948
5.1.1.1 British actually left a whole year earlier than this - Mountbatten was only Viceroy for 6months
5.1.2 Back in time for Royal Wedding?!?

Annotations:

  • Queen Elizabeth was to be married to Prince Philip in Nov 1947 - Pamela, Mountbatten's daughter was to be bridesmaid. This is not really thought to be serious reason Mountbatten rushed independence but then this is Mountbatten we're talking about...
5.2 keen to please Congress (Nehru particularly)
5.2.1 They want independence
5.2.2 The Simla Moment is evidence of this
5.3 Given plenipotentiary powers by Atlee

Annotations:

  • Plenipotentiary powers: the power to make decisions without having to have them first agreed by the British govt. 
6 Congress/Nationalist Campaigns
6.1 Lahore Session 1929
6.1.1 Independence becomes formal aim of Congress and Muslim League
6.2 Gandhi's campaigns
6.2.1 Forced British to reform/negotiate
6.2.1.1 G-I Pact, Roundtable Confs, 1935 Govt Ind Act
6.3 Round table conferences
6.3.1 2nd Round Table Conf. Gandhi only rep of Congress - only allowed to agree to full independence
7 World War 2
7.1 Britain not prepared to fight / build up army post war
7.2 Reform offered as reward
7.2.1 1940 offer/Cripps mission
7.3 INA shows Indians prepared to fight
7.4 Quit India Movement
7.5 POW's had potential to cause civil unrest

Annotations:

  • PoWs = prisoners of war
7.5.1 Lots of Indian POW's who had fought for INA
7.5.1.1 If they let them go, seen as weak

Annotations:

  • Could convict of treason, sentence to death, make them martyrs
7.5.1.1.1 Britain decides to select 1 Sikh, 1 Muslim and 1 Hindu
7.5.1.1.1.1 Not favouring 1 group but all religious groups against them
7.5.1.1.1.2 Court martial, tried for treason, convicted, sentenced to deportation
7.5.1.1.1.3 Forced to release prisoners due to potential uprising
8 Bengal Famine
8.1 Britain seen as responsible
8.2 Created unrest
8.3 Increased pressure to leave
9 Jinnah and Muslim League
9.1 Lahore Resolution 1940

Annotations:

  • First official demand for a separate state, caused by Congress refusal to allow Muslim representatives in the Prov Govts after 1937 elections - 26/1500!  Almost certainly intended by Jinnah as a bargaining chip - designed to scare Congress into compromise.
9.2 Withdrawal from political negotiations - Cabinet Mission
9.2.1 Anger over Congress reinterpretation of May Statement and British Govt Congress bias
9.2.2 Launched Direct action Day - result was Gt Calcutta Killings

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