Section 4- Respiration and Gas Exchange

beccalaw7
Mind Map by , created over 5 years ago

Cambridge IGCSE Biology (Section 4- Respiration and Gas Exchange) Mind Map on Section 4- Respiration and Gas Exchange, created by beccalaw7 on 06/11/2014.

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beccalaw7
Created by beccalaw7 over 5 years ago
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Section 4- Respiration and Gas Exchange
1 Respiration
1.1 Aerobic Respiration
1.1.1 With Oxygen
1.1.2 Word Equation= Glucose + Oxygen --> Carbon Dioxide + Water
1.1.2.1 Symbol Equation= C6H12O6 + 6O2 --> 6CO2 + 6H2O
1.2 Anaerobic Respiration in Animals
1.2.1 Without oxygen
1.2.2 Glucose --> Lactic Acid
1.2.3 When exercising and your muscles ache, it is the build up of lactic acid you are feeling
1.3 Anaerobic Respiration in Plants
1.3.1 Without oxygen
1.3.2 Glucose --> Ethanol + Carbon Dioxide
1.3.3 Fungi like yeast do anaerobic respiration, so we use it to make beer
1.4 RESPIRATION IS NOT BREATHING IN AND OUT!!
1.5 RESPIRATION IS THE PROCESS OF RELEASING ENERGY FROM GLUCOSE, WHICH HAPPENS CONSTANTLY IN EVERY LIVING CELL
2 Gas Exchange in Plants
2.1 Plants exchange gases by diffusion
2.2 When plants photosynthesise they use CO2 from the atmosphere and produce O2 as a waste product
2.2.1 Therefore, when plants respire they use O2 and produce CO2 as a waste product
2.3 When a plant is photosynthesising it uses up lots of CO2 so there's not a lot left inside the leaf. This encourages more CO2 to move into the leaf by diffusion (from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration)
2.4 Lots of O2 is being made as a result of photosynthesis. Some is used during respiration and the rest is diffused out of the leaf via the stomata (moving from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration)
2.5 Leaves are designed for Gas Exchange
2.5.1 Leaves have stomata for diffusion
2.5.1.1 Close at night (in dark)
2.5.2 There are air spaces which allow gasses to move easily through the leaf
2.5.3 Large surface area
3 Respiratory System
3.1 Exercise
3.1.1 More movement= Higher breathing rate
3.1.2 Muscles respire and require more oxygen
3.2 Lungs and Thorax
3.2.1 The thorax is the top part of our body, it stops at the diaphram
3.2.2 Lungs= protected by ribs
3.2.2.1 Surrounded by pleural membranes
3.2.3 Air breathed in goes through the trachea which splits into 2 tubes called bronchi (one to each lung). The bronchi splits into smaller tubes called bronchioles which finally end with small bags called alveoli where gas exchange takes place
4 Human Gas Exchange
4.1 Alveoli
4.1.1 Lungs contain millions of alveoli where gas exchange takes place
4.1.2 Blood coming from the rest of the body contains a high concentration of CO2 and very little O2 so CO2 diffuses out of the blood into the alveoli to be breathed out, while O2 diffuses out of the alveoli into the blood.
4.1.3 Specialised for Gas Exchange
4.1.3.1 Large surface area
4.1.3.2 Moist lining for gasses to dissolve in
4.1.3.3 Thin Walls
4.1.3.4 Good blood supply
4.1.3.5 Walls are permeable
4.2 Smoking
4.2.1 Smoking damages the walls of the alveoli
4.2.2 Tar in cigarettes damage the cilia in your lungs and trachea which usually stop dust and germs getting into the lungs...
4.2.3 Tar also irritates the bronchi encouraging excess mucus to be produced causing smokers cough
4.2.4 Carbon monoxide reduces amount of oxygen in blood so heart rate and blood pressure increase, leading to heart disease ect..