Religious problems led to much tension between Charles and his subjects because: Marriage with Henrietta Maria, a Catholic- people believe she encourages Charles to become more Catholic in his ways. Laud's reforms (too Catholic)- upset the Puritans, many were punished for plotting against him, Pyrnne, pamphlets. Introduction of prayer book in Scotland 1637- led to riots at St. Giles' Cathedral (1639) and a war, Charles did not have enough funds so he had to recall Parliament. Charles wanted all to worship in the same way, but the prayer book was too Catholic for the Scots (they were more Puritan in their ways)
Money Problems caused much tension between Charles and Parliament because: Customs duties- only given once to Charles at the start of his reign, (James spent too much) Parliament wanted to keep a closer eye on Charles' expenditure. Charles ignored Parliament's wishes and collected money after one year without asking their permission. Forced Loans (1627)- upset many in Parliament, thought it was wrong to imprison people if they refused to lend money to the king. Charles signed the Petition of Right (1628), he could not impose forced loans anymore, Charles is angry and dismisses Parliament from 1629 to 1640 (Period of Personal Rule). Ship Money (1634-1635)- upset many because England was not at war, people thought Charles used this money for himself without having to recall Parliament to agree to the new taxes that they might refuse. Coat and Conduct money (1640)- used to fight the Scots, however, the new tax led to numerous riots. War with Scotland resulted in Charles' defeat and The Treaty of Rippon, Charles had to pay the Scots £850 (this was a lot more money back then).
Personality and actions of the King were a problem because: Charles was reserved and stubborn. Divine Right of Kings- this meant that he was inflexible and unwilling to make genuine compromises. Prayer book- a wiser king would have not introduced the book when he did provoking an unnecessary war. English subjects sympathized with the Scots. Wiser king would not have imposed forced loans. Wiser king should have been able to win Parliament's trust and confidence more.
Four facts about Oliver Cromwell: Roundhead, Parliamentarian, Leader of New Model Army. Lord Protector from 1653-58. Accused of being a king in all but name, Hero for some, There is a statue of him outside the Houses of Parliament.
The Restoration:This was when the Stuarts reclaimed the throne of England, Charles II became king in 1660. James II was the last Stuart King; he ruled from 1685 to 1688.
The Glorious Revolution:In 1688 James II was forced to abdicate by Parliament and those who wanted to ensure that the monarchy remained Protestant. William D'Orange was invited to be king, since it was feared that James' children would lead to a Catholic Monarch. The abdication was the key reason for the subsequent Jacobite uprisings, such as in 1745.
The 1707 Act of Union:England and Scotland were to be ruled from one Parliament in Westminster. Scottish Parliament was no more. The main reason for the Union was to ensure that the was no restoration of the Stuarts in Scotland, so that both England and Scotland could retain a Protestant Monarch. From this point on no future monarch could marry a Catholic and inherit the throne.
1. Causes of the Civil war
2. Oliver Cromwell
3. The Restoration, The Glorious Rev., The act of Union