International Institutions - Transforming the Nature of Sovereignty

Annie May Jackson
Note by Annie May Jackson, updated more than 1 year ago
Annie May Jackson
Created by Annie May Jackson over 5 years ago
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Lecture 11

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TRANSFORMING THE NATURE OF SOVEREIGNTY Can democracy only be practised within the state? Has democracy outgrown the state? Does it not need to be practised, to some degree beyond it? DEMOCRACY - A form of rule based on public control with political equality, AUTHORISATION, PARTICIPATION, RESPONSIVENESS, REPRESENTATION, TRANSPARENCY, ACCOUNTABILITY, INCLUSION Challenges: Hollowing out: complexity of society, control by experts Globalisation: financial markets, erosion of 'communities', international frameworks as source of law (EU, europeanisation) Alienation: citizenry alienated from the state (low election turnout) Uneven development: too many differences between states Democracies are adapting - more powerful judiciaries to review government processes, powerful media, mass movements/protests 'Beyond the state' - more public control to processes of globalisation 'Democracy is thought to be exercised best within the state, but people's lives are affected by powers exercised on transnational, or even global, scale' - McGrew Sovereignty is a historical product: economic and security expectations have to be fulfilled and sovereignty has always had to adapt Sovereignty has always been qualified: is the name of other norms (human rights, democracy, security) Sovereignty does not equate with success: some of the states that are the most sovereign in the Westphalian sense are also conspicuously weak in terms of human security (Israel) or isolated (N. Korea) FUTURE Realism - restricted future Institutionalist - institutions to serve human kind across the frontiers Neo-functionalist - II's to sap away the strength of sovereign state Marxists - II's to wither away with the state, leaving international interest organisations 'Global Politics' - HELD, political globalisation, multiple spheres of politics and authority, new forms of communications changes how politics is done SOLUTIONS - 1). regional governance, reformed UN, 2). opening up of functional IO's (IMF, WTO) to more public scrutiny and general enhancement of accountability, 3). regional referenda across the boundaries about issues concerning the whole region, 4). commitment to universal standards Social and political changes can make aspirations reality, but also destroy aspirations and create a new reality (9/11, terrorism) Relevance of II's is parallel to the increased complexity of our world

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