hist paper 2

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Note on hist paper 2 , created by xo on 12/15/2013.
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 War affected Britain’s ability to trade. Loss of markets had a long term effect on industry  Concentration on a narrow group of heavy industries meant Scotland was affected badly when the post-war boom turned into a slump. Exemplification, such as decline in shipbuilding  Dundee jute companies saw price collapse with removal of trade restrictions on India  The textile industry in Scotland had a varied experience – wool price rose but falling exports of cotton and woollen goods. Points from Recall which offer a wider contextualisation such as: Initial effects of the war such as:  War delayed long-standing structural problems for the Scottish economy and its reliance on a narrow range of heavy industries that were reliant on exports  Initial post-war boom in some industries like ship-building – warship yards built passenger liners and merchant ships to replace those lost  Mines were nationalised and the miners made good wages. After the war the mines returned to their original owners. Lack of investment and fierce foreign competition resulted in decline  The Admiralty cancelled the cost-plus system and went back to competitive tendering for orders: The demand for ships, and therefore steel, declined  Yards suffered because of labour disputes and a shortage of material  Wages were cut in autumn of 1921, men were laid off and Yarrow’s closed. Industrial unrest and late delivery of ships damaged the Clyde’s reputation  Other countries increased their steel-making as well as their ship-building capacity. Falling demand for ships affected steel  Jute prices collapsed after the war. Trade restrictions removed. Competition from abroad. Resulting in unemployment, social misery and discontent  In Dundee, several firms went into liquidation others amalgamated, to form Jute Industries Ltd  The collapse of foreign markets for herring from Germany, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, Russia and the Baltic greatly affected the industry. European countries started to compete  Cheap foreign imports of food like refrigerated meat from Argentina and frozen lamb and tinned fruit from Australia and New Zealand competed with indigenous agriculture when trade was resumed after the war

After Effects of War - 2012 SQA Marking Scheme

SQA Effects of War on Indusrty 2011

                                                                            Recruitment Recruitment and Conscription: By the end of the first week in September 1914, Glasgow had recruited more than 22,000 men. By December 1914, 25% of the male labour force of western Scotland had already signed up. 13% of those who volunteered in 1914-15 were Scots. Young Scots urged to join the army through a mixture of peer pressure, feelings of guilt, appeals to patriotism, hopes for escapism and adventure, heroism, self sacrifice and honour. For the unemployed, the army offered a steady wage. Kitchener's campaign was a huge success: examples such as by the end of August 20,000 men from the Glasgow area had joined up. In Scotland there were no official 'Pals Battalions' but in reality – the Highland Light Infantry/Tramway battalion; the 16th battalion/the Boys Brigade. In Edinburgh, Cranston's battalion and McCrae's battalions became part the Royal Scots. McCrae's battalion was the most famous because of its connection with Hearts football club.

                                                     Casualty Rates The official figure given at the end of the war calculated that Scotland had suffered 74,000 dead. Huge sacrifice of Scots during the war: of 557,000 Scots who enlisted in the services, 26.4% lost their lives. One in five British casualties were Scottish. Campaigners for a national war memorial claimed the figure was over one hundred thousand.

                                      Role of Women Shift towards military and manufacturing employment and a temporary decline in some service industries. Number of women working increased from 593,210 in 1911 and 638,575 a decade later. Before the war less than 4,000 women worked in heavy industry in Scotland. Number of women employed in munitions in Scotland rose to 31,500 by October 1918. Many women workers were used for "dilution" of labour. Women worked as conductors on trams and buses, as typists and secretaries and nearly 200,000 women found work in government departments.

Remembrance Collective national grief in Scotland. Also great pride in the achievement of the Scottish units. Local memorials were erected around the country. Scots wanted their own memorial in tribute to their special sacrifice: Edinburgh castle houses the memorial and museum. It was officially opened in 1928. Over 148,000 Scottish names are carved on the national war memorial. The British Legion was set up and in 1921 the British Legion Scotland. Poppy day started at the same time. The act of silence at 11am on 11 November started in 1919.

Extra Info The Clyde in 1913 launched 750,000 tons of shipping but by the end of the 1920s the Clyde was launching merely 56,000 tons of     shipping. Between 1921 and 1923 shipbuilding on the Clyde dropped (and) the Clyde was already beginning to pay for the artificial boom which had rescued it during the war years.   In 1913 Scotland employed 140,000 miners but 20 years later the coal industry was…producing a third less coal.   Coal production suffered.   The Dundee jute trade was deeply depressed.   Jute production in Dundee was adversely affected by declining orders.   In the late 1920s the value of Scottish farming was falling.   According to the Board (of Agriculture) the decline was not restricted to any particular part of the country but was widespread throughout Scotland.

Details relating to recruitment – volunteering to go to the front.  Scots in action – ‘shock’ troops – ‘ladies from hell’.  Conditions facing the Scots.  3 Scottish divisions 9th, 15th [Scottish] and 51st [Highland] took part in the Battle of the Somme, as well as numerous Scottish battalions in other units.  Scottish losses at the Somme – 16th (McCrae’s Battalion) Royal Scots lost 12 officers and 573 soldiers, 51st Highland Division suffered 3,500 casualties.  Somme success – the 51st [Highland] Division launched a successful attack at Beaumont Hamel with relatively few casualties in November 1918.  Role of Haig at the Somme.  Attitude of the survivors: losses were replaced and the Scottish units carried on though grousing and criticisms became more common.

How fully - 2013 Question

Development of detail regarding trench warfare – attacks followed by enemy counter attacks, gain and loss of trenches with limited movement of trench lines.  Scots units involved in the Loos and Somme offensives with high casualty rates.  Scots units tended to be seen as ’shock’ impact attack formations.  Controversy regarding role of Commander –in – Chief, Sir John French, known to care about the welfare of his troops and failure to co-operate with the French.  Sir John French replaced by Haig, December 1915.  Role of Haig at Loos – ‘unfavourable ground’, use of gas, problem with reserves, did not belive they had enough ammunition to fight-but he was overuled by Kitchener. He was also concerned about Kitchener’s New Army divisions including Scots.  Detail on losses at Loos – 20,598 names on the memorial at Loos – one third are Scottish. 10

The Defence of the Realm Act (DORA) Alcohol consumption was curbed with restricted opening hours. Public houses were open 13 hours a day, except on Sunday. DORA reduced this to 5½ hours by 1916. ‘Treating’ was banned and in certain areas pubs and breweries were nationalised.

Role of women In 1911 it is calculated that fewer than 6000 women were employed in the heavy industries of Clydeside. By the end of the war 31,500 women were working in the munitions industry alone. Driving force for change was the need to increase armaments production and the consequent ‘dilution’ of labour, which allowed women into previously skilled engineering jobs. Women were already important in some industries before the war. They were used in the textile trade, as domestic servants and on the land. In particular the jute industry in Dundee relied on women. The success of such industries was linked to the low pay they gave women workers. On average it was 45% of what was paid to a man. Various things restricted women and work; marriage was one as was the perceived ‘role’ of women, particularly true of the middle classes. The war allowed women to, temporarily, step into jobs vacated by male workers serving in the armed forces or employed in heavy industries under the dilution scheme. Women worked on the trams, the railways and in the rubber industry. By 1917 it was calculated that one in three working women were substituting male workers’ jobs. Women did not get equal pay, although it did improve. Munitions was a major employer of women: the huge purpose-built facility in Gretna was a case in point. At its height 9000 women and 5000 men worked there. They lived in a purpose-built village that connected with the works via a light railway. 12-hour shifts were the norm and the work was dangerous. Order in the facility was maintained by the Women’s Police Service. Scottish Women’s Hospitals were one remarkable example of people wanting to contribute to the war in a positive way. They were idea of the remarkable Dr Elsie Inglis. She had been a campaigner for the vote. She proposed field hospitals near the front. Rejected by the British she found a more positive response from the French and Serbian governments. She raised money and organised the setting up of field hospitals. The Scottish Women’s Hospital served throughout the war in both Serbia and France. The French one treated over 10,000 service men. She died on returning from the Russian front where the Scottish Women’s Hospitals had been helping Serbian and Romanian troops. Although many of the gains of the war went into reverse, eg soldiers returning from France expected their jobs back and got them, one thing did change: the Representation of the People Act gave women the vote in national elections for the first time.

After WAR Expectations of returning soldiers to find jobs and a high standard of living. Expectations increased with the promise of Lloyd George to provide ‘homes fit for heroes’. Initial economic boom soon replaced by reality in the 1920s. Shipbuilding went into decline: between 1921 and 1923 the tonnage built on the Clyde went down from 510,000 to 170,000. By the 1930 yards were closing as orders dried up. Decline in locomotive production by two-thirds at the North British Locomotive company. Engineering work also went into decline as railway companies were amalgamated and their direction moved from Scotland to London. Coal production went into decline as a result of falling orders. Fish production went into decline as a result of falling demand. Jute production affected by declining orders and industrial action. Textiles affected by declining markets. Decline in those working on the land. Decline in Highland population: 341,535 in 1911, 325,853 in 1921. Emigration, loss of life and decline in agriculture were all to blame. Land settlement improved, although there was still a shortage of decent land in the Highlands and Islands. Highland crofters had enjoyed security of tenure from 1886. The 1919 Land Settlement (Scotland) Act released funds and allowed the Board of Agriculture to compulsory purchase private land. However, the process was laborious. Land raids occurred, especially by ex-servicemen who expected land on their return from the trenches, in areas like Lewis, Uist, Skye and Sutherland.

 In Dundee, several firms went into liquidation others amalgamated, to form Jute Industries Ltd  The collapse of foreign markets for herring from Germany, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, Russia and the Baltic greatly affected the industry. European countries started to compete  Cheap foreign imports of food like refrigerated meat from Argentina and frozen lamb and tinned fruit from Australia and New Zealand competed with indigenous agriculture when trade was resumed after the war

In Dundee, several firms went into liquidation others amalgamated, to form Jute Industries Ltd  The collapse of foreign markets for herring from Germany, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, Russia and the Baltic greatly affected the industry. European countries started to compete  Cheap foreign imports of food like refrigerated meat from Argentina and frozen lamb and tinned fruit from Australia and New Zealand competed with indigenous agriculture when trade was resumed after the war

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