The collapse if the Tsarist regime

daniifarrell
Note by , created almost 6 years ago

GCSE History (Topic 1-The Collapse of the Tsarist Regime) Note on The collapse if the Tsarist regime , created by daniifarrell on 01/02/2014.

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daniifarrell
Created by daniifarrell almost 6 years ago
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Russia in 1917 92 times bigger than Britain It covered about 22.3 million square km About a sixth of all the land in the world Communications were difficult; roads were unpaved, thick with mud New railways only connected a fraction of the country 125.6 million people in 1897 Only 55 million spoke Russian Russification Occupation Population in millions Peasant 93.7 Factory workers 12.3 Shopkeepers 5.0 Railway and communication 1.9 Servant and workers hired by the day 5.8 Priests and professionals 1.6 Government officials, soldiers 2.2 Landlords, nobles etc 2.2 Criminals and other unknowns 0.9   Social problems: Social inequality ½ peasant had no land or homes Farmland was poor quality and ineffective methods used Food shortages Most land, wealth and power belong to 1 million Town life People moving to cities 1.8 million in Moscow; most industrialised city Almost 50% of all factory worker were in Moscow Long hours, low pay, dangerous and hard. Factory workers lived in the worst part of town; ten to a room Factory owners made a huge profit How Russia was ruled Ruled by a Tsar: made all decisions advised by a council of ministers Since 1613 the Tsar had always come from the Romanov family Orthodox church encouraged belief that they were above criticism and chosen to rule by God. Nicholas II became Tsar in 1894- ‘im not ready to be Tsar. I know nothing about the business of ruling’ Books and newspapers were censored to make sure they were not hostile Secret police ‘okhrana’ looked for opponents of the Tsar

1905 revolution Series of demonstrations and strikes Troops guarding the Tsar winter palace in St Petersburg fired into a crowd of peaceful demonstrators, killing 130 The St Petersburg strikers formed a soviet- a workers council to organise strikes Soviets spread and took over in some places replacing the Tsar’s government Nicholas II set up a ‘Duma’, a parliament with two houses, one elected by the people to advise him. He agreed people could set up political parties and trade unions People could now hold meetings and discuss politics. He changed voting system to make sure the people elected wouldn’t demand reforms   Opposition Monarchists- who supported the Tsar and wanted a return to the rule of Tsar, advised by a  few nobles. Constitutionalist – who wanted the Tsar’s power limited by a constitution and some kind of parliament . The most important were the Constitutional Democratic Party (the Kadets), the Octobrists and the Progressists. Most of the Dumas came from these parties. Revolutionaries- who believed in the overthrow of the Tsar. The largest group was the socialist revolutionaries. Some revolutionary parties followed the idea of Karl Marx. The social democrats believed in a revolution led by workers. By 1917 they had divided into Bolsheviks (led by Lenin) and Mensheviks (with several leaders)   There became a huge difference between what he had said in October 1905 and what he would really allow.   He reduced the rights of the Duma and then stopped called it at all.   The secret police often broke up meetings- their leaders went to prison or to exile in Siberia.  

The First World War Only 21 socialists didn’t vote for extra taxes for the war St Petersburg had changed to Petrograd Strikes virtually ceased for the first year of the war Russia was disadvantaged because of size, poor transport and inefficient industry and agriculture The army was huge but badly trained and equipped Soldiers had no rifles and were told to pick one up from a dead comrade. 1915 Germans pushed the Russian army back- 2 million men killed, wounded or prisoners In 1915 because war was going badly the Tsar took personal command He left his wife who happened to be German as his deputy back in Petrograd. Effects of the war By 1917 over 15 million had joined the army- conscription Made it hard to grow food and keep industrial production up Requisitioned most horses from farms so it was hard to plough as well as transport problems Fertiliser production collapsed 6 million more people went to live in cities to work in factories for work effort Ready to revolt Workers in the north suffered the most People who ate fell by 25% between 1914-1916 Infant mortality doubled 1917 crime rate was three time bigger than 1914 Leaders of the soviets (Bolsheviks or Mensheviks) were quick to respond to the worsening conditions and the growing lack of government control. They held meetings about shortages, deaths on the front, government incompetence, they  spoke about revolution and workers listened

The First World War Only 21 socialists didn’t vote for extra taxes for the war St Petersburg had changed to Petrograd Strikes virtually ceased for the first year of the war Russia was disadvantaged because of size, poor transport and inefficient industry and agriculture The army was huge but badly trained and equipped Soldiers had no rifles and were told to pick one up from a dead comrade. 1915 Germans pushed the Russian army back- 2 million men killed, wounded or prisoners In 1915 because war was going badly the Tsar took personal command He left his wife who happened to be German as his deputy back in Petrograd. Effects of the war By 1917 over 15 million had joined the army- conscription Made it hard to grow food and keep industrial production up Requisitioned most horses from farms so it was hard to plough as well as transport problems Fertiliser production collapsed 6 million more people went to live in cities to work in factories for work effort Ready to revolt Workers in the north suffered the most People who ate fell by 25% between 1914-1916 Infant mortality doubled 1917 crime rate was three time bigger than 1914 Leaders of the soviets (Bolsheviks or Mensheviks) were quick to respond to the worsening conditions and the growing lack of government control. They held meetings about shortages, deaths on the front, government incompetence, they  spoke about revolution and workers listened

Revolution 19th February, announced rationing would start 1st march 21st February managers of the Putilov works locked out some workers- this set of a strike that spread 23rd February women marched for equal rights, women cloth workers and other groups of strikers joined them. The next day 150,000 workers took to the streets armed with tools, they seized food from well off areas and held a mass protest 25th February hardly anyone went to work, 200,000 took to the streets. Flags and banners ‘down with the the Tsar’ Tsar got a telegram and ordered the general to ‘put down the disorders by tomorrow’ 26th February troops were ordered to shoot- some refused and changed sides 27th they refused and shot their commanding officer then took guns and ammunition to join the people Everyone was startled by the sudden revolution. The army took weapons and organised the people. They got hold of 40,000 rifles and 30,000 revolvers On 27-28th they stormed prisons releasing political prisoners   A new government 27th February a large crowed in front of the Tauride palave were yelling ‘we need leaders’ 12 duma deputies agreed with the Petrograd soviet, on the 2nd march, that they would set up a provisional government to run things until a new government would have the support of the powerful Petrograd soviet, as long as it worked to eight principles of the government: Political prisoners and exiles to be freed from prison or allowed to return Freedom of speech, of the press and to hold meetings No class, religion  or nationality discrimination Preparations to be started for electing a constituent assembly to write a constitution All police organisations to be replaced by an elected people’s militia Local government to be elected Military units that took part in the revolution should not be disbanded or sent to the front to fight Off-duty soldiers to have the same rights as civilians The Tsar abdicated

The Provisional Government People had high expectations: Taking Russia out of war Providing a more effective government Improving conditions for workers in towns and cities Solving the problems of shortages, especially food and fuel Redistributing property more equally Problems: It saw itself as temporary and thought all these issue should wait for the new, permanent, constituent assembly. It had no real power. It needed support of the army and the Petrograd soviet to stay in power and get laws carried out Many of the reforms that people wanted, such as land redistribution, relied of the provisional government controlling more of Russia than it did. It only really had control over cities and towns in the north of Russia. Some problems, such as shortages were difficult to solve and the disruption of the revolution just made the supply worse. The PG decided to send more troops and spread enthusiasm for fighting but the problems of supply and leadership were still prominent and the army was as disconnected as ever. Achievements: By April the PG had introduced 8 hour working day Legal to hold public meetings, to speak freely and form political parties Released political prisoners.

Russia in 1917

1905 Revolution

The First World War

Revolution

The PG