Arteriole are innervated by what?
What vasoactive mediators does the endothelium synthesise?
How does NO cause vasodilation? What other effects does it cause?
How do vasodilators affect enzymes that control Ca2+ sensitivity?
How do vasodilators block Ca2+ channels?
Name some vasoconstrictors
What is renin released from the kidney in response to?
What does renin do?
What does activation of AT1 cause?
What is the synthesis of endothelin stimulated by?
What is endothelin synthesis inhibited by?
Where does endothelin act and what does it cause?
A blood pressure above what should be treated?
What is the difference between primary and secondary hypotension?
What is severe hypertension?
What drugs are used to treat hypertension?
What are directly acting vasodilators used to treat hypertension?
How do K+ agonists treat hypertension?
How do Ca blockers treat hypertension?
What are the indirectly acting vasodilators used to treat hypertension?
How do beta blockers treat hypertension?
What is cardiac failure?
What causes cardiac failure?
Why does cardiac failure lead to fluid build up?
What is preload?
What is after load?
What is the effect of increased preload in a normal person?
In heart failure patients why is preload already elevated?
What is the therapeutic aim of drugs used to treat cardiac failure?
How do beta blockers treat cardiac failure?
How do cardiac glycosides treat cardiac failure?
How are ACEI used to treat cardiac failure?