Infectious diseases can be spread when microbial experiments are conducted. Which of the following would be an effective barrier to stop this from happening?
Using chlorinated water during the experiment
Washing hands before performing the experiment
Wearing plastic or latex gloves during the experiment
Disposing carefully and safely of waste materials produced during the experiment
Antibodies are proteins that
break down pathogens.
bind with a specific antigen.
catalyse biochemical reactions.
are produced by T cells to kill disease-causing viruses.
Which of the following can cause an imbalance of microflora in humans?
Overuse of antibiotics
Excessive use of antiviral drugs
Consumption of genetically modified foods
Immunisation against different diseases
Which of the following prevents the entry of pathogens into the human body?
Cell death to seal off a pathogen
Mucus lining the respiratory tract
Phagocytosis performed by B cells
Destruction of pathogens by the lymphatic system
What is the genotype of pure breeding plants?
What are the main components of the immune response involved in or
Antibodies, T cells and B cells
Antibiotics and white blood cells
T cells, B cells and red blood cells
Red blood cells, white blood cells and antigens
Vaccination can control the spread of
a genetic disorder.
an infectious disease.
a nutritional deficiency.
an environmental disease.
Sutton and Boveri contributed to our understanding of the importance of chromosomes. What was one of their findings?
Chromosomes carry hereditary factors.
Sex is genetically determined by chromosomes.
Radiation can cause mutations in chromosomes.
The structure of chromosomes is a double helix.
What is a feature of an estuarine organism (eg mangroves) that allows it to survive?
High rate of salt excretion
Low rate of osmosis into its cells
High uptake of salt from its environment
Low uptake of oxygen from its environment
What does the structure of arteries allow them to do?
Transport oxygen rich blood
Withstand high blood pressure
Release carbon dioxide to the lungs
Remove nitrogenous waste via the kidneys
Why are quarantine measures needed when there is an outbreak of an infectious disease in Australian farm animals?
To prevent the spread of the disease to food imported into Australia
To prevent Australian farm animals from becoming immune to the disease
To prevent introduced plants threatening the survival of Australian farm animals
To prevent the disease from spreading to farm animals in different regions of Australia
Two experiments were conducted where either cold air or hot air was blown continuously
onto a student’s legs while the skin temperature on the student’s arm was being measured. The graph shows the change in skin temperature on the arm of the student for each experiment. Which process best accounts for the trends shown in the graph?
Why is carbon dioxide removed from cells?
To decrease osmosis
To allow oxygen to replace it
To prevent an increase in blood pH
To prevent cells from becoming acidic
Hormone replacement therapy was used to treat a patient who had low salt levels in their blood. Which hormone was used for the treatment?
Which is the correct sequence of a feedback mechanism for the control of blood pressure?
blood pressure → blood vessels → brain → reptors → blood pressure
blood pressure → blood vessels → reptors → brain → blood pressure
blood pressure → receptors → blood vessels → brain → blood pressure
blood pressure → receptors → brain → blood vessels → blood pressure
The theory of evolution has been supported by studying the structures of vertebrate forelimbs from the fossil record. This type of study is best described as:
The photo shows insect mounds (nests) in hot northern Australia. The mounds are built with a narrow side facing the midday sun and the wide sides facing towards the morning and late afternoon sun. The structure of these nests helps the insects in them to
cool down quickly in the afternoon
maintain a constant body temperature
develop enzymes that operate at a high temperature
A family tree is shown. What is represented by this family tree?
Inheritance of a recessive trait
Inheritance of a dominant trait
An enzyme was extracted from a mammal. The graph shows the rate at which bubbles are produced in a reaction at 36ºC using the extracted enzyme. Which of the following graphs would show the results if the enzyme reaction were carried out at 18°C?
Which of the following statements about DNA provides support for Darwin’s theory of evolution?
Genes are inherited from both parents
Mutation of DNA may lead to new alleles
DNA contains the code for proteins and polypeptides
The sequence of bases in DNA differs between species