Ch9 #1-30

Question 1 of 30

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Economist Mancur Olson concluded that groups

Select one of the following:

  • exercise too much power in the American system.

  • increase the flexibility of government.

  • can have their benefits reduced by concerted political opposition.

  • are shown to have too much power when examined individually.

  • help the government break away from long-term or previous commitments and apply funding to new problems or issues.

Question 2 of 30

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The theory that society's interests are most effectively represented through group action is

Select one of the following:

  • republicanism.

  • constitutionalism.

  • elitist theory.

  • pluralist theory.

  • interest-group liberalism.

Question 3 of 30

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A basic reason for the existence of so many interest groups in the United States is

Select one of the following:

  • the American tradition of free association.

  • the extent of diverse interests in American society.

  • America's federal system of government.

  • the separation of powers in American government.

  • All these answers are correct.

Question 4 of 30

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The Supreme Court ruling in Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission (2010) ultimately led to the creation of

Select one of the following:

  • Super PACs.

  • PACs.

  • election reform.

  • independent-expenditure-committees (IECs).

  • the AARP.

Question 5 of 30

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The most fully organized interests are those that have which of the following as their primary purpose?

Select one of the following:

  • agriculture

  • economic activity

  • civil liberties

  • labor reform

  • reform of government

Question 6 of 30

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The Supreme Court decision in Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission (2010)

Select one of the following:

  • allows corporations and labor unions to spend unlimited funds on campaigns.

  • limits PACs by reducing the amount of money they can raise through contributions by small donors.

  • has forced candidates for office and elected officials to make public the amounts of campaign contributions they have received from PACs and which PACs make those donations.

  • has strengthened the argument that PACs constitute a better system of campaign finance than one based on wealthy donors.

  • has forced corporations and labor unions to legally divorce themselves from the PACs they sponsor.

Question 7 of 30

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A purposive incentive is defined as

Select one of the following:

  • a goal of direct economic gain.

  • the opportunity to contribute to a worthy goal or purpose.

  • a goal benefiting a specific group.

  • any common purpose that brings groups together.

  • corporate profit.

Question 8 of 30

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Citizens' interest groups are distinguished from economic interest groups by the fact that

Select one of the following:

  • their leaders are elected by secret ballot of the group's members.

  • their members receive no direct economic benefit from attainment of the group's goals.

  • they do not lobby government officials directly, but rely instead on public service announcements to get their views across to society.

  • they always pursue goals in which there is a high level of agreement among society members.

  • All these answers are correct.

Question 9 of 30

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An interest group that focuses on policy benefits for senior citizens would be an example of

Select one of the following:

  • a philosophical interest group.

  • an ideological group.

  • a professional group.

  • a business group.

  • a single-issue group.

Question 10 of 30

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Which of the following groups primarily uses litigation as its lobbying method?

Select one of the following:

  • NRA

  • ACLU

  • NAACP

  • AARP

  • NEA

Question 11 of 30

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Why have issue networks become more prevalent?

Select one of the following:

  • the increasing power of corporate lobbying

  • the increasing diversity of interest groups

  • the increasing influence of PACs

  • the instability of candidates' positions

  • the increasing complexity of policy problems

Question 12 of 30

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Some groups pursue collective goods. A collective good is one that

Select one of the following:

  • cannot be selectively granted or denied to individuals; it must be shared.

  • is provided by a public service organization.

  • is secured by the president.

  • is secured by Congress.

  • None of these answers is correct.

Question 13 of 30

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The situation in which individuals are tempted not to contribute to a cause because they will get the benefits even if they do not participate is called the

Select one of the following:

  • size factor.

  • free-rider problem.

  • special-interest paradox.

  • disincentive factor.

  • zero-sum game.

Question 14 of 30

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In an effort to overcome the free-rider problem, noneconomic groups have

Select one of the following:

  • deliberately restricted the size of their membership.

  • joined up with economic groups.

  • convinced government to limit the distribution of public goods to those who have contributed to the group's efforts.

  • used Internet resources and computer-assisted mailing lists to target potential donors.

  • adopted taxes for nonmembers.

Question 15 of 30

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Roughly how many American workers currently belong to unions?

Select one of the following:

  • one in two

  • one in four

  • one in eight

  • one in six

  • one in ten

Question 16 of 30

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Economic groups have an advantage over noneconomic groups because

Select one of the following:

  • they nearly always have larger memberships.

  • they are organized primarily for political purposes.

  • they have better leadership.

  • they have greater access to financial resources.

  • their members are committed to their causes.

Question 17 of 30

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"Agency capture" occurs when

Select one of the following:

  • a regulatory agency funnels money back into the lobbying organizations that are seeking policy changes.

  • regulatory agencies side with the industries they are supposed to regulate rather than with the public.

  • the executive branch takes back control of a regulatory agency by passing regulation to prevent undue influence by lobbying organizations.

  • a regulatory agency must be dismantled because it has become corrupted.

  • an election results in the replacement of an agency's leadership through appointive positions under a new president.

Question 18 of 30

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A flaw in pluralism theory is the fact that

Select one of the following:

  • the interest group system is unrepresentative because some interests are far better organized and more powerful than others.

  • the public interest is never served by policies that promote special interests.

  • larger groups always prevail politically over smaller groups.

  • political parties better represent different interests than do interest groups.

  • All these answers are correct.

Question 19 of 30

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Which citizens' group did a Fortune magazine survey rank as the nation's most powerful lobbying group?

Select one of the following:

  • the NAACP

  • the AFL-CIO

  • the AARP

  • MADD

  • Common Cause

Question 20 of 30

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An amicus brief

Select one of the following:

  • is a written document in which a group explains to a court its position on a legal dispute the court is handling.

  • is a written document in which an interest group lays out its policy preference for targeted lawmakers.

  • prevents a lobbyist group from making campaign donations to policy makers over a specific issue.

  • provides evidence for prosecutors of an illegal monetary relationship between a lawmaker and an interest group or PAC.

  • prevents PACs from donating more than $5,000 to a single candidate during a primary election.

Question 21 of 30

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In acknowledging the dilemma inherent in group activity, James Madison

Select one of the following:

  • argued that the free-rider problem would hurt some groups more than others.

  • claimed that government could listen to all groups, but should only enact policies that promote the interests of majority groups.

  • worried that government would be overly dominated by groups, but recognized that a free society is obliged to permit the advocacy of self-interest.

  • argued that government must restrict the activities of groups, so that political parties could act as the major instrument of democracy.

  • All these answers are correct.

Question 22 of 30

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Effective inside lobbying is based upon

Select one of the following:

  • countering the aims of other groups.

  • providing useful and persuasive information to key officials.

  • mobilizing the group's members.

  • bribing or threatening officials.

  • using the media to exert pressure.

Question 23 of 30

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PACs tend to contribute the most money to

Select one of the following:

  • incumbents.

  • challengers.

  • Independents.

  • liberal Democrats.

  • liberal Republicans.

Question 24 of 30

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A main difference between iron triangles and issue networks is that

Select one of the following:

  • an iron triangle includes members of the legislative, executive, and judicial branches, while issue networks bypass the judicial branch.

  • issue networks involve a stable group of bureaucrats, legislators, and lobbyists, while iron triangles exclude lobbyists in an attempt to reach impartial decisions.

  • issue networks are generally less stable than iron triangles, in that the members of an issue network may change as the issue develops.

  • issue networks, being less formal, rely on outside lobbying only, while iron triangles use inside lobbying only.

  • All these answers are correct.

Question 25 of 30

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Political scientist Theodore Lowi has questioned pluralist theory by suggesting that

Select one of the following:

  • special interests should never receive benefits from government.

  • there is no concept of the public interest in a system that gives special interests the ability to determine the policies affecting them.

  • policies that favor a series of minorities are inherently fairer than policies that ignore small groups in favor of a majority.

  • the sum of people's special interests is a rough approximation of society's collective interest.

  • Madisonian theory has created a perfect balance of special interest and common good.

Question 26 of 30

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In recent decades, lobbyists in Washington, D.C. have increasingly

Select one of the following:

  • targeted the executive branch in their efforts to influence policy decisions.

  • relied on coercive tactics, such as threats of withdrawing election support.

  • worked to defeat incumbent members of Congress in order to replace them with members who would be more supportive.

  • relied exclusively on inside lobbying as the means of gaining their policy goals.

  • ignored the judicial branch as a means of influencing policy decisions.

Question 27 of 30

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The influence of interest groups through the courts occurs through

Select one of the following:

  • initiating lawsuits.

  • lobbying for certain judges to be appointed to the bench.

  • outside lobbying only.

  • PACs.

  • both initiating lawsuits and lobbying for certain judges to be appointed to the bench.

Question 28 of 30

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The term iron triangle refers to

Select one of the following:

  • a tightly-knit set of lobbying groups.

  • the relationship among the Congress, the military, and defense contractors.

  • a small and informal but relatively stable set of bureaucrats, legislators, and lobbyists who are concerned with promoting a particular interest.

  • the strategy of lobbying all three branches of government simultaneously.

  • a corrupt relationship among the president, Congress, and the Supreme Court.

Question 29 of 30

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An informal grouping of officials, lobbyists, and policy specialists who come together temporarily around a policy problem is

Select one of the following:

  • an iron triangle.

  • an issue network.

  • a caucus.

  • a policy system.

  • an ideological network.

Question 30 of 30

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Outside lobbying does NOT include

Select one of the following:

  • developing and maintaining close contacts with policymakers.

  • the use of campaign contributions to legislators who favor the interest group.

  • cultivating favorable coverage from the news media.

  • targeting group resources on key election races.

  • rousing citizens to contact their elected officials and express their support.

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Quiz by , created over 2 years ago

Quiz on Ch9 #1-30, created by c2c0b5e2 on 06/07/2014.

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