In Jenkins et al. (1994), when was the posterior patieral cortex active?
In Jenkins et al. (1994), when was the dorslated prefrontal cortex active?
In Jenkins et al. (1994), when was the premotor cortex active?
In Jenkins et al. (1994) which areas were active in practised sequence production?
Jenkins et al. (1994) and Shadmehr and Holcomb (1997) both show, what?
How do Jenkins et al. (1994) and Shadmehr and Holcomb (1997) differ in terms of PPE, PMd and Cerebellum?
How do Jenkins et al. (1994) and Shadmehr and Holcomb (1997) differ in terms of explainantion activations in PPC, PMd and cerebellar?
Jenkins et al. (1994) found representation of learned sequence associated with supplementary motor area and hippocampus, but what is the problem?
Who contrasted tasks with and without the requirement for set shifting, in both a motor and cognitive domain?
What did Keele et al. do in their study?
What did Keele et al. do for the cognitive task?
What were the results of Keele et al.?
How did the shifting effect in Keele et al. seem to be dopmaine based?
What does the shifting hypothesis offer?
What gives evidence that motor learning is down to lower levels of hierachy?
What is an instance of some aspect of motor learning being independent of muscular system used to perform action?
Who devised an apparatus, similar to population vector studies, but imposed novel force filed to device which perturbed movements in clockwise direction in learning?
What were the results of Shadmehr and Holcomb (1997)?
What was the conclusion of Shadmehr and Holcomb (1997)?
Who, using a PET, studied the performance of sequences of finger movements in three conditions; practised sequence production, learning new sequences, rest?
What was the task in Jenkins et al. (1994)?
What have some cells in the premotor cortex been shown to represent?
What has been found with monkeys and neurons in premotor area F5?
What did Rizzolatti et al. (1988) propose about the neurons which represent action goals?
What is the difference between the posterior parietal and associated premotor regions identified by Batista et al. (1999)?
What is the difference between the posterior parietal and associated premotor regions identified by Desmurget et al.(2009) using electrical stimulation in patients undergoing brain surgery?
What is the difference between posterior parietal and associated premotor regions identified by Grafton and Hamilton (2008)?
What did Grafton and Hamilton (2008) do in their study?
What were the results of Grafton and Hamilton (2008)?
What seems to play a critical role in movement initiation, settling the competition?
Where does the striatum of the basal gangila get most of it's input?
What sort of output signal does the basal gangila let out?
What are the three phases of basal gangila of modulating action?
What are the three phases of basal gangila of modulating action?
What does the different time scales of the direct and indirect pathway of basal gangila position it as? What does it mean?
What sort of system does the basal gangila seem to be?
How can the basal ganglia explain the excessive movements and co-ordination problems in Hungtington's disease?
How can the basal gangila explain the symptoms of parkingsons disease, such as problems initiating movement?
What are affordances in Cisek and Kalaska's hypothesis?
What is the thought process behind Cisek and Kalaska's affordance competition hypothesis?
What does the affordance competition hypothesis propose?
In the affordance competition hypothesis, what are the action specification processes?
What are the action selection processes in affordance competition hypothesis?
When is an action executed in the affordance competition hypothesis?
How did Cisek and Kalaska (2005) give evidence for their affordance competition hypothesis?
What evidence did Ledberg et al. (2007) find for parallel operations?
Which circuits play a key role in affordance competition hypothesis?
What is the evidence for the role of parieto-promotor circuits in affordance hypothesis?
The findings which emphasizes planing for both reaching and eye movements are simultaneously prepared are consistent with..
Ronald et al. (1980;1993) registered the regional blood flow via SPECT, what was found regarding complex movements?
Ronald et al. (1980;1993) registered the regional blood flow via SPECT, what was found regarding motor imagery?
What is the main different in functions between premotor cortex and supplementary motor area?
Which part of the parietal cortex forms a circuit with the dorsal premotor cortex, and what does this circuit do?
Which part of parietal cortex forms a circuit with the ventral premotor cortex, and what is it involved in?
What condition do people tend to suffer from when they have lesions on the secondary motor areas? What is this condition?
Patients with apraxia can do simple gestures, but where do the problems arise?
Where do lesions tend to be which cause Apraxia, in which limb does the problem seem evident in?
What is ideomotor apraxia?
What is ideotional apraxia, and damage to which area typically results in this?
What did Sherrington find when he severed the spinal cord, disconnecting spine from cortex and subcortex, in cats?
How did Brown take the findings of Sherrington's cat study further?
What has spinal circuitry become known as? And why?
Who found evidence that action specifies movements by endpoint only, as an attractor state, and how?
What is Mackay (1987) model of understanding action?
What sort of process is motor control?
What is Miller et al. (1980) cognitive process which could help explain motor control?
Who said hierarchical control of action sequences could be used to explain the pattern of response times in executing a sequence of key strokes?
What were the results of Rosenbaum et al. (1983)?
Who recorded movement from single cells in primary motor cortex of rhesus monkeys whilst they moved lever from a centre location to one of eight locations? Results?
What did the results of Georgopoulos et al. (1995) show in terms of the primary motor cortex?
What has further work by Georgopoulos et al. found?
Even though directional tuning and population vectors are key concepts, what is it important to note?
What is the representation of a population vector based on?
Who created the affordance competition hypothesis?
What type of models did Cisek and Kalsaka criticized for not being accurate?
What did Cisek and Kalsaka propose brains have evolved for?
What did Cisek and Kalsaka propose natural interactive behaviour require?
What did Cisek and Kalsaka say there has been distinctions between, and what did they say about them?
What did Cisek and Kalsaka say decisions appear to be made through?
What did Cisek and Kalsaka say neurophysiological data may be more readily interpreted from?
What does Cisek and Kalaska offer? What is their hypothesis rooted in, and how?
Which part of the brain are used in preparing the act?
Which parts of the brain are used when executing the act?
What is at the top of the hierachical organization of the motor system?
What are the middle components of the hierarchical organization of the motor system?
What are the five nuclei which make up the basal ganglia?
What is at the bottom of the hierarchy of control?
Which parts of the brain are critical for action selection and planning?
What are the two nuclei which are referred to together as the straitum?
What are the medial systems involved in?
What are the lateral systems involved in?
Where is input and output to the basal gangila restricted to?
What translates action plans into movement, with help of the cerebellum and basal gangila?
Which other hierachy has counterparts with the motor hierachy, with links between the two and similar structures?
What projects to motor and frontal regions of the cerebral cortex?
What are sensory-motor circuits?
What do the nuceli of the basal ganglia not involved in input or output do?
What are the three cortical motor areas?
What does movement result from?
What are the cortical motor areas involved?
Aside from cortical motor areas, what other areas are involved in guiding and controlling movement?
How do muscles act in pairs?
Where is the major point of departure of sensorimotor signals from the cortex to spinal cord and muscles?
What are antagonistic muscles?
From where does the primary motor cortex receive input?
What are synergistic muscles?
What did the primary motor cortex used to be referred to? Why not anymore?
Did Penfield claim that each body part was controlled by a single separate part of the motor map?
What is the neurotransmitter makes muscles produce force by contracting?
Where does acetylcholine get released?
Who recorded single cells in monkey's primary motor cortex during movement in different fingers? What was found?
What is a motor unit?
What does a motor unit consist of?
What is the innervation ration?
How has research shown that motor homuculus is not an adequate model of limb control?
Do muscles need innervation to have spring-like properties?
What determines the force of muscle contraction?
What is the primary motor cortex a part of?
What are the two types of receptor organs of muscles?
What do muscle spindles respond to and how are they arranged?
How should the network of cortical motor areas be viewed?
What provides a substrate for adaptive alternations during the acquisition of motor skills and recovery of function after lesions?
What do lesions in primary motor cortex usually result in?
What is hemiplegia?
What are common causes of hemiplegia?
What is absent immediately after a stroke, and do they return?
What does voluntary movement need to inhibit to do, and thus what happens when cortical influence is removed?
What are therapies for hemiplegia? Is success common?
What do the secondary motor areas do?
What are the secondary motor areas?
What does stimulation of premotor cortex often evoke?
What is processing of the motor system like in regard to the sensory system?
What is the sequence of motor planning?
How are golgi tendon organs arranged, and what function do they serve and why?
Who found stimulating the supplementary motor areas creates complex and often bilateral movements?
How can the sensitivity of the muscle spindles be modulated?
What do lesions in supplementary motor are result in? What does this indicate?
What do alpha motoneurons innervate?
What is alpha gamma co-activation? What does it allow for?
Ronald et al. (1980;1993) registered the regional blood flow via SPECT, what was found regarding simple finger movements
What does the spinal cord contain?
What can activate the neural circuits in the spinal cord?
What is anatomy of the spinal cords?
Regarding the spinal cord, what are the two arms of the H called, and which is in and which is out?
Where does the ventral horns of the spinal cord go?
What is Sherrington's Final Common Path?
What is Sherrington's Final Common Path?
Where do afferent fibers enter the spinal cord, and efferent fibers leave?
What is the stretch reflex?
What do reflexes allow?
What are the two things Sherrington discovered a stretch reflex requires?
What are the three steps to stretch reflex?
In the stretch reflex, what do other afferent branches do?
What are the subcortical motor structures?
What is the largest descending fiber tract?
Where do most cortico-spinal fibers cross the midline?
How does the motor cortex act on spinal motor neurons?
What does the direct path of the motor cortex allow?
What are the characteristics of the cerebrum?
Where do inputs to the cerebellum primarily project to?
Where does the output from the cerebellum originate in?
What is an unusual feature of the cerebellum?