Someone with a larger working memory capacity is likely to perform better than someone with a smaller working memory capacity on all of the following tasks EXCEPT
a) following directions b) efficient reading c) learning a computer language d) discriminating shapes
Which statement about working memory is FALSE?
a) It has a limited storage capacity. b) It functions mainly as a storage container. c) Information in it is fragile and easily lost. d) It refers mainly to the resources that make up the central executive and its helpers.
Which event will improve long-term memory performance during a free-recall task?
a) Having participants count backward by threes for 30 seconds before recalling the list. b) Delaying the recall for a few seconds after the list end (with no interpolated activity). c) Using words that all have similar sounds (like bay, day, gray, etc.). d) Slowing down the presentation of the list.
Which of the following types of processing for a target word will probably lead to the BEST memory performance?
a) Noting whether the letters are upper-case or lower-case. b) Generating a sentence that uses the target word. c) Repeating the word over and over while trying very hard to memorize it. d) Thinking of a list of words that rhyme with the target word.
Which of the following would help improve recall of a difficult-to-understand paragraph the LEAST?
a) quizzing yourself in order to improve comprehension of the paragraph b) chunking the sentences in the paragraph into smaller, meaningful groups c) repeating the paragraph aloud many times d) giving the paragraph a meaningful title
In this graph for recall in a word-learning paradigm, "A" reflects the _______ effect and "B" reflects the _______effect.
a) primacy; recency b) recency; primacy c) primary; retrieval d) retrieval; primary
Which group would perform the BEST on a memory test?
a) Participants engaged in shallow processing without previous warning of a memory test. b) Participants engaged in medium processing with previous warning of a memory test. c) Participants engaged in deep processing without previous warning of a memory test. d) Participants engaged in shallow processing with previous warning of a memory test.
What is an advantage of trying to learn something using deep (meaning-related) processing rather than strategies like mnemonics?
a) It helps keep track of the order of learned items. b) It is better at preventing "remembering" details that were never actually present but fit with the meaning of the items. c) It creates more retrieval paths for the memory. d) It relies less on having background knowledge about the topic being learned.
In using the rehearsal loop, the central executive is directly involved in the step of
a) subvocalizing the items in the list to be remembered. b) planning the end-goal of the rehearsal. c) transferring items into the phonological buffer. d) storing visual information, such as mental images.
What factor about a person will BEST predict ability to memorize complex information about biology?
a) previous related biology knowledge b) performance on a digit span task c) intention to learn the information d) amount of time spent trying to learn the information
Long-term memory is to working memory as _______ is to _______.
a) an open file on your computer; the monitor on your computer b) a printed copy of a file; a file stored on a CD c) a keyboard on your computer; the cursor on your computer d) a file stored on a hard drive; an open document you are working on
Veronica wanted to go to the grocery store but was out of paper for writing a shopping list. She came up with several possible ways to remember what she needed to buy (listed below). Which of her ideas is NOT a simple mnemonic strategy?
a) Using the peg-word system to associate different items on the shopping list with words in an easy-to-remember rhyme. b) Imagining what she can cook with all of the items on the list and imagining what all the food would taste like. c) Imagining her drive to school and associating items on the list with prominent landmarks she passes every day. d) Using the first-letter technique to make a word or phrase composed of the first letter of each item from the list.
Why does elaborative encoding facilitate recall?
a) It provides many potential retrieval paths. b) It occurs more quickly than shallow processing. c) It evokes fewer memory connections. d) It is more likely to be evoked by simple sentences than by complex ones.
Which event will affect working memory performance during a free-recall task?
a) having participants count backward by threes for 30 seconds before recalling the list b) using more familiar or common words c) delaying the recall for a few seconds after the list end (with no interpolated activity) d) slowing down the presentation of the list
Which is of the following is MOST effective for long-term retention?
a) peg-word learning b) imagery c) maintenance rehearsal d) elaborative rehearsal
According to the modal model, all of the following are true EXCEPT
a) new information moves from one information-processing component to the next. b) short-term memory's size can be expanded with sufficient practice. c) incoming information goes through early analysis and short-term memory on the path to long-term memory. d) memory takes place in a series of discrete ste
An individual suffering with smaller working memory would be LEAST likely to exhibit which of the following behaviors?
a) successfully identifying her mother's face in a collection of photos b) copying a drawing of a face in a piecemeal, disorganized fashion c) perseverating in his method of sorting cards after being told to switch strategies d) taking an alternative route to school after learning about a traffic jam on the traditional route
The short-term storage of verbal materials is often supported by the rehearsal loop. The short-term storage of mental images is accomplished by _______.
a) the operation span b) the visual-cortex loop c) the visuospatial buffer d) perseveration
Maintenance rehearsal is:
a) an efficient and effective way to enter information into long-term memory. b) well suited for delayed recall, but only if you knew were going to be tested. c) poorly suited for delayed recall, even if you knew you would be tested. d) not very efficient, but if done for long enough it will be effective at promoting memory.
The holding capacity of working memory is often said to be _______.
a) 7 digits b) 7 chunks c) 15 digits d) 15 chunks
Which does NOT describe a cost of chunking?
a) The more effort spent on reorganizing material into more manageable or easier units, the less attention is available for holding the material in working memory. b) A participant is engaging the information in a relatively superficial fashion when chunking. c) Chunking at the time of acquisition is dependent on knowledge that you already have. d) A subject might remember extra, incorrect information that he himself added in order to facilitate recall.
Scores on which task show the strongest correlation with reading comprehension and reasoning tasks?
a) a standard measure of digit span b) operation span c) score on a free-recall task d) ability to chunk numbers
Which of the following is a FALSE statement about the memory strategy of "chunking"?
a) Practice with chunking can greatly increase the actual size of an individual's working memory. b) Chunking does have a downside: items can be misremembered because they are often altered in some way as part of the chunking process. c) Some individuals can create very big chunks, enabling them to recall over 50 numbers in order. d) The increased processing required for chunking leaves less attention available for other tasks.
What causes the primacy effect?
a) The last words heard are still in working memory at testing. b) The first words heard are also the first words to leave working memory. c) Words that get more attention are better encoded into long-term memory. d) Experimenters tend to give easier words first as warm-up.
All of the following statements accurately describe the effects of mnemonics EXCEPT:
a) Mnemonics can impose organization on a list that does not have its own intrinsic organization. b) Mnemonics facilitate multiple connections between new material and prior knowledge. c) Mnemonics can help to recall, not only items, but also their serial order in the list. d) Mnemonics can be detrimental if you wish to have many retrieval paths to the information.