Which of the following is NOT a general shape/structure of bacteria and microbes?
Bacilli (rod shaped)
Which of the following is a property of gram positive (G+) cell walls?
They have two layers.
They have a thick peptidoglycan layer.
They have a periplasmic space.
The outer wall contains Lipid A.
Which of the following is true about gram negative (-) cell walls?
They contain peptidoglycan.
They only have 1 layer that is very thick.
They contain teichoic acid.
How do bacteria attach to host cells?
Which of the following can grow with or without oxygen?
Which of the following is true about toxins?
There are 220 known bacterial toxins and they fall under two groups: exotoxins and endotoxins.
Toxins are poisonous substances produced by microorganisms.
40% of toxins cause disease by damaging the Eukaryotic cell membrane.
All of the above are true.
Which of the following exotoxins interefere with normal nerve impulses?
Endotoxins are part of the outer cell wall of Gram (-) bacteria.
Which of the following is true about bacteria cells?
They are eukaryotic.
They contain sterols.
The produce endospores.
They have glucans, mannans, and chitin in their cell wall.
Which of the following is true about fungi?
They are insensitive to antibiotics.
They are prokaryotic.
They have peptidoglycan in their cell wall.
They do not contain sterols.
Which of the following plasma membranes contains ergosterol?
Human plasma membrane
Fungal plasma membrane
Bacterial plasma membrane
Which of the following is a mycelial form of dimorphic fungi?
Systemic fungal infectious agents are found in the skin, hair, and nails. They rarely invade deeper tissue. They are also called dermatophytes.
Proteinaceous infectious particles are:
Which of the following is FALSE about common virus structures?
Contain a viral genome of RNA or DNA
Contain a capsid
Genome is double stranded or single stranded
In which cycle is the viral genome integrated into the host?
Which of the following pathways do retroviruses use?
RNA --> DNA --> mRNA --> Protein
DNA --> mRNA --> Protein
RNA --> mRNA --> Protein
Which of the following is NOT a type of parasite (main classifications)?
Which of the following is the active, free swimming stage of the protozoan?
Which of the following protozoans are incorrectly matched:
Amoeba - sarccodina
Flagellates - mastigophora
Ciliates - trematodes
Sporozoans - apicomyplexa
Which of the following hleminthes is associated with eating raw or undercooked meat of animals infected with its larvae?
Which of the following helminthes is associated with infection caused by ingestion of eggs shed in the feces of a human tapeworm carrier?
Which of the following helminthes is associated with blood flukes that target organs that are fed by blood?
Which of the following is NOT a possible effect of an antimicrobial drug?
Interruption of cell membrane structure/function
Inhibition of protein synthesis
Inhibition of nucleus formation
Interference with nucleic acid metabolism
What is virulence?
The degree of pathogenicity
The relative ability of a microorganism to cause disease
How capsules, toxins, enzymes, cell wall receptors, and pilli allow pathogens to evade or overcome host defenses
All of the above.
Which of the following is NOT a static defense (non-inflammatory reaction) of the body?
Which of the following is NOT true about the local inflammation response?
It is the second stage of the innate system.
Phagocytes respond to peptidoglycan and mannose.
Migration of phagocytes and plasma proteins to infected tissues occurs.
Maturation of WBCs occurs.
Which of the following cells recognize antigens on the surface of a virus-infected cell and bind to the cell to destroy it?
Cytotoxic T cells (killer T cells)
Helper T cells
MHC1 attached to CD8 cytotoxic T cells.
Which of the following is true about B lymphocytes?
They are formed in the thymus and undergo development in the bone marrow.
They are formed in the bone marrow and undergo development in the bone marrow.
They are formed in both the thymus and the bone marrow and undergo development in the blood.
Which of the following is NOT true about T lymphocytes?
T-lymphocytes migrate from the thymus to enter the bone marrow.
In the outer cortex of the thymus, T lymphocytes acquire specific receptors (TCRs) which commits it to a single antigen specificity.
T lymphocytes respond by proliferation and production of a clone of cells (clonal selection).
T lymphocytes differentiate to express CD3, CD4 and CD8 receptors.
T lymphocytes can become which of the following:
CD4+ (helper T cells)
CD8+ (killer T cells)
Which of the following does a B lymphocyte NOT do when encountering an appropriate antigen?
Interact with antigenic epitopes.
Develop in plasma cells, secreting large amount of antibody.
Circulate as memory cells.
Hide antigenic peptides from T cells.
Which of the following immunoglobulin types works on parasites?
Which of the following is true about innate immunity?
Action requires days to develop.
Contains macrophages, granulocytes, natural killer cells, complements, HCl, lysozymes.
Response is specific.
Contains T cells and B cells.
Which of the following is true about the adaptive immunity response?
It contains macrophages and granulocytes.
It is non specific.
It can be humeral or cell mediated.
Its action is immediate.
Which of the following is NOT true about naturally passive acquired immunity?
It is a short term immunization.
It is not produced by the host.
The antibodies are passed through the placenta to the fetus.
Which of the following is an example of natural active acquired immunity?
Vaccination with live or killed infectious agents.
Measles or mumps.
Short term immunization
Placenta to fetus
A small molecule that can elicit an immune response only when attached to a large carrier (like a protein) is:
Which of the following is not a main role of a complement?
Lysis of cells.
Attracting white blood cells.
Enhancement of phagocytosis.