Psyc1022 Multiple Choice

Question 1 of 49

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The notion that unconscious motivations can influence our overt behaviour is MOST consistent with the views of

Select one of the following:

  • Carl Rogers

  • Wilhelm Wundt

  • B.F. Skinner

  • Sigmund Freud

Question 2 of 49

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The school of psychology that suggests psychologists should study only what can be objectively observed is

Select one of the following:

  • humanism

  • behaviourism

  • structuralism

  • functionalism

Question 3 of 49

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Which of the following groups of psychologists would be MOST likely to focus on individual uniqueness, freedom, and potential for growth in a person?

Select one of the following:

  • behaviourists

  • psychoanalysts

  • humanists

  • Gestalt psychologists

Question 4 of 49

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After World War II, many psychologists began to specialise in

Select one of the following:

  • clinical psychology

  • research psychology

  • experimental psychology

  • industrial psychology

Question 5 of 49

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The term that refers to the mental processes involved in acquiring knowledge is

Select one of the following:

  • cognition

  • pedagogy

  • empiricism

  • introspection

Question 6 of 49

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Decision making, reasoning, problem solving, language and memory are topics MOST likely to be studied by

Select one of the following:

  • evolutionary psychologists

  • biological psychologists

  • cognitive psychologists

  • behavioural psychologists

Question 7 of 49

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Janet trained her dog to sit on command by following this behaviour with a reward of a dog biscuit and praise. Janet used the principles of

Select one of the following:

  • behaviorism

  • humanism

  • psychoanalysis

  • fuctionalism

Question 8 of 49

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The idea that psychology is empirical suggests that

Select one of the following:

  • reason and logic are primary to psychology

  • conclusions should be guided by theories

  • conclusions should be based on direct observation

  • research should focus on underlying, internal events

Question 9 of 49

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Liam is reading a magazine article about a new "wonder drug" and finds himself wondering who participated in the study, and what evidence the claims are based on. Liam's thinking illustrates the idea that

Select one of the following:

  • Motives and expectations can colour experiences

  • information needs to be viewed with a certain degree of skepticism

  • single-cause explanations are often inaccurate

  • sciences do not exist in a cultural vacuum

Question 10 of 49

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Dr Kline takes an eclectic approach in treating psychological disorders. She often prescribes medications that influence neurotransmitter levels, but she also works with her clients to change their behaviour and understand the role of social factors in their problems. Dr Kline's approach to therapy illustrates the idea that

Select one of the following:

  • our cultural backgrounds exert a considerable influence over our behavior

  • motives and expectations can color our experiences

  • unconscious motivation has little impact on overt behavior

  • differing theoretical perspectives can provide a more complete understanding of behavior

Question 11 of 49

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World War I and World War II stimulated the growth of psychology as a profession. This influence illustrates which of the textbooks unifying themes?

Select one of the following:

  • Psychology evolves in a sociohistorical context

  • Psychology is theoretically diverse

  • Psychology is empirical

  • Our experience of the world is highly subjective

Question 12 of 49

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Roger and Lydia met for a blind date. Roger had been told by his best friend that Lydia was charismatic and vivacious. During their date Lydia was friendly but she was quite shy and didn't initiate much of the conversation. Still, Roger thinks that Lydia is one of the most exciting people that he has met, and he can't wait to see her again. Roger's reaction to his date with Lydia shows that

Select one of the following:

  • unconscious motivation has little impact on overt behavior

  • people's experience of the world is highly subjective

  • behaviour is determined by multiple causes

  • cultural heritage has a large impact on behavior

Question 13 of 49

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The text's unifying theme of "heredity and environment jointly influence behaviour" is often referred to as describing the

Select one of the following:

  • nature versus nurture issue

  • state versus trait issue

  • biological versus psychological issue

  • psychological versus biological issue

Question 14 of 49

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The sequence of age-related changes that occur as a person progresses from conception to death is known as

Select one of the following:

  • maturation

  • the perinatal period

  • development

  • childhood

Question 15 of 49

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The close, emotional bond of affection between an infant and its caregiver is called

Select one of the following:

  • attachment

  • dependency

  • imprinting

  • identification

Question 16 of 49

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Mercedes takes her 1 year old son, Justice, to visit a day-care enter where she plans to enrol him. Justice eagerly explores the playroom as long as Mercedes is present. When his mom leaves the room to fill out some forms, Justice becomes somewhat upset, but when Mercedes returns, he quickly calms down. This is the type of interaction you might observe between a child and a parent who

Select one of the following:

  • share an avoidant attachment relationship

  • share an anxious-ambivalent attachment relationship

  • share a secure attachment relationship

  • have not yet developed an attachment relationship

Question 17 of 49

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Harlow's research with monkeys raised with two types of artificial mothers found that when frightened, infant monkeys went to the artificial mother that

Select one of the following:

  • provided food

  • did not provide food

  • was made of cloth

  • was made of wire

Question 18 of 49

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In Erikson's theory, the psychosocial crisis during adolescence is

Select one of the following:

  • identity versus confusion

  • generativity versus self-absorption

  • industry versus inferiority

  • intimacy versus isolation

Question 19 of 49

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The major shortcoming of Erikson's psychosocial stages of theory of development is that

Select one of the following:

  • he failed to look at adult development

  • he placed too little emphasis on social forces in the development of personality

  • like many stage theories, it pays little attention to explaining individual differences

  • he fails to account for continuity in personality developmen

Question 20 of 49

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If an infant's basic biological needs are met by others and sound attachments are formed during the first year of life, the infant will, most likely, successfully resolve the crisis associated with the ______________ stage.

Select one of the following:

  • industry versus inferiority

  • trust versus mistrust

  • autonomy versus shame and doubt

  • initiative versus guilt

Question 21 of 49

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For children, in which Piagetian stage might we be correct with the old expression "Out of sight is out of mind"?

Select one of the following:

  • concrete operational

  • preoperational

  • sensorimotor

  • formal operations

Question 22 of 49

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The assumption of preoperational child that a car is moving because she is in it is an example of

Select one of the following:

  • egocentrism

  • centration

  • conservation

  • reversibility

Question 23 of 49

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The stage of concrete operations is said to be "concrete" because

Select one of the following:

  • the child attributes human qualities to concrete objects

  • facts are taken t be set in stone, not to be given up easily

  • an object must be present for the child to recognize its existence

  • children can perform operations only on tangible objects ad actual events

Question 24 of 49

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If Lawrence Kohlberg were to present you with a moral dilemma, in which of the following would he be MOST interested?

Select one of the following:

  • your judgement of right and wrong in this situation

  • what you would do in this situation

  • whether your intended behaviour in this situation is consistent with your moral judgement about it

  • your reasons for whatever moral judgement you had about the situation

Question 25 of 49

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In the 1960s, even though most his friends tried recreational drugs, Sebastian refused to experiment with drugs. He did not think the drugs were likely to be harmful, but using the drugs was illegal, and he believes each person has a moral obligation to obey society's rules. Sebastian's reasons for NOT experimenting with drugs reflect.

Select one of the following:

  • preconventional moral reasoning

  • conventional moral reasoning

  • postconventional moral reasoning

  • social moral reasoning

Question 26 of 49

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In an emergency, we would all react differently from one another because we all have different personalities and experiences. This quality of personality is called

Select one of the following:

  • consistency

  • differentiation

  • constancy

  • distinctiveness

Question 27 of 49

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According to the five-factor model of personality, people who score high in ___________ are characterized as anxious, hostile, self-conscious, insecure and vulnerable.

Select one of the following:

  • neuroticism

  • extraversion

  • conscientiousness

  • openness to experiences

Question 28 of 49

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Janelle is suspicious and uncooperative. Her friend think she is a boastful person who is seldom sympathetic. Based on the five-factor model of personality, Janelle would probably score

Select one of the following:

  • low in openness

  • low in agreeableness

  • high in neuroticism

  • low in extraversion

Question 29 of 49

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The id can be BEST described as having which of the following statements as its motto?

Select one of the following:

  • Mom always liked you best

  • do the right thing

  • we can work it out

  • if it feels good, do it

Question 30 of 49

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Jason just sat down to work on his term paper when his friends called and invited him to a party. If Jason decides he will only go after he finishes outlining the term paper, his decision reflects the function of his

Select one of the following:

  • id

  • superego

  • ego

  • preconscious

Question 31 of 49

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Observational learning and self-efficacy are associated with

Select one of the following:

  • Roger's person-centred theory

  • Bandura's social cognitive theory

  • Jung's analytical theory

  • Mischel's person-situation approach

Question 32 of 49

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Which of the following approaches to personality is MOST likely to be criticized for denying the existence of free will and the importance of cognitive processes?

Select one of the following:

  • Psychoanalytic approach

  • behavioural approach

  • cognitive approach

  • humanistic approach

Question 33 of 49

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Which of the following theoretical perspectives would be most likely to argue that a person's subjective view of the world is more important than the objective reality?

Select one of the following:

  • behavioural approach

  • cognitive approach

  • humanistic approach

  • biological approach

Question 34 of 49

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Thomas describes himself as an open and relaxed individual, but people who know him well would describe Thomas as secretive and tense. According to Carl Rogers, Thomas is likely to

Select one of the following:

  • experience incongruence

  • be low in self-monitoring

  • experience congruence

  • be low in self-efficacy

Question 35 of 49

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Which of the following is one of the major criticisms of the humanistic approach to personality?

Select one of the following:

  • It is too deterministic

  • It is too optimistic about human nature

  • It presents a fragmented view of personality

  • It de-emphasizes the subjective natre of self-concept

Question 36 of 49

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According to Rogers, parents who give their children affection both when the children meet, and also when they fail to meet expectations, provide their children with

Select one of the following:

  • conditional love or affection

  • unconditional love or affection

  • continual love or affection

  • generalized love or affection

Question 37 of 49

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Skinner would explain why one student responds positively to receiving a B on a test whilst another student responds negatively to a B by noting that

Select one of the following:

  • one student has a stronger superego than the other

  • one student has more self-efficacy than the other

  • the students have different personality traits

  • the students have different histories of reinforcement and punishment

Question 38 of 49

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The belief that one has the ability to perform behaviors that should lead to expected outcomes is referred to as

Select one of the following:

  • self-efficacy

  • self-monitoring

  • self-control

  • self-justification

Question 39 of 49

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Which of the following theoretical perspectives would be least likely to rely on animal research

Select one of the following:

  • behavioural approach

  • cognitive approach

  • humanistic approach

  • biological approach

Question 40 of 49

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Psychodynamic personality theories focus on

Select one of the following:

  • an individual's freedom and potential for growth

  • genetic factors

  • unconscious mental forces

  • learning

Question 41 of 49

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Homeostasis is a state of

Select one of the following:

  • physiological stability

  • physiological instability

  • psychological stability

  • psychological instability

Question 42 of 49

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Which of the following behaviours is consistent with a drive theory of motivation

Select one of the following:

  • Eating an apple when hungry

  • eating dessert after a large meal

  • looking up information in the encyclopaedia

  • studying hard to earn an "A" on the test

Question 43 of 49

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Evolutionary theories of motivation suggest that motives result in behaviours that

Select one of the following:

  • restore homeostasis

  • maximise reproductive success

  • reduce biological needs

  • reduce inentives

Question 44 of 49

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According to motivation theorists, we would expect people generally to be

Select one of the following:

  • more similar in biological than in social needs

  • more similar in social than in biological needs

  • highly varied in both social and biological needs

  • quite similar in both biological and social needs

Question 45 of 49

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Rita has just finished a large meal at her favourite restaurant. Although she is quite full, when the waiter brings the dessert tray, she oers a piece of chocolate cheesecake. In this instance, Rita's behaviour is LEAST consistent with:

Select one of the following:

  • incentive theories of motivation

  • the expectancy-value theory of motivation

  • the self-awareness theory of motivation

  • drive theories of motivation

Question 46 of 49

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Max has the need to master difficult challenges, to outperform others, and to meet high standards for excellence. According to researchers such as McClelland and Atkinson, Max MOSY likely

Select one of the following:

  • has high affiliation needs

  • is high in achievement motivation

  • is low in achievement motivation

  • has a high fear of failure

Question 47 of 49

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Esteban has a job that pays well and he recently moved to a neighbourhood where there is little crime. Lately, he finds that he is thinking seriously about finding the right person to settle down with, and raising a family. According to Maslow's hierarchy of needs, at this point in time Esteban is MOST likely motivated by

Select one of the following:

  • aesthetic needs

  • belongingness and love needs

  • esteem needs

  • the need for self-actualization

Question 48 of 49

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According to goal setting theory what type of goals will most likely lead to the highest performance

Select one of the following:

  • easy goals

  • no specific goals

  • challenging goals

  • specific and challenging goals

Question 49 of 49

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According to expectancy theory, the concept of instrumentality refers to:

Select one of the following:

  • how much you really want the outcome

  • your confidence that if you put in the effort required you will achieve the goal

  • the notion that the reward will satisfy an important need

  • how confident you are that achieving the goal really well lead to the outcome

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Psyc1022 Multiple Choice

Melanie Yandell
Quiz by , created over 2 years ago

Quiz on Psyc1022 Multiple Choice, created by Melanie Yandell on 26/08/2014.

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Melanie Yandell
Created by Melanie Yandell over 2 years ago
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