Located in what is today Iraq & Syria; the earliest human civilizations began here
a self-governing state made up of a city and its surrounding territory.
Athens was once a powerful city-state that operated like a small country.
center of city life; these were massive structures built by the Sumerians; at the top there was a temple
decorative gardens planted on the terraces of the ziggurats of ancient Babylon.
Historians believe that King Nebuchadnezzar had the Hanging Gardens of Babylon built for his wife, who missed her lush and leafy homeland.
A wedge-shape system of writing invented by the Sumerians
The invention of the ___ made it easier for Sumerians to transport goods
long epic poem from Mesopotamia tells the story of a king searching for the secret of immortality; considered the first great piece of literature in history
men dominated the society
Egyptian pharaoh who united Lower and Upper Egypt in 3100 BC; he wore a double crown to symbolize the unification
type of government in which the ruler is considered a god; literally means "rule by God"; in Ancient Egypt the pharaoh was worshipped as a god
the longest river in the world; Egypt is often called the "Gift of the _______"
a family of rulers; the right to rule is passed down within the family
original meaning " great house" or "palace"; name for the Egyptian King
two stage process for preserving a dead body; the first stage is embalming the body; then the wrapping and burial of the body
He ruled for 67 years; built massive temples; defeated the Hittites
boy pharaoh whose tomb survived in tact; over 3,000 artifacts were found
a god or godless
worship of only one God
land along the Nile that is very fertile due to the silt left behind by floods
the annual flooding of the Nile River; when the flood waters would go down, farmers would plant their wheat, barley, and other grains in the rich black silt left behind
waterfalls along the Nile River; provided natural protection from invading armies
Egyptian god of the afterlife; according to myth he was murdered by his evil brother, Seth. Seth cut up Osiris' body into 14 pieces and scattered them throughout Egypt. Isis the wife of Osiris found the pieces and sewed him back together, bringing him back to life
Egyptian picture writing
a stone with writing on it in two languages (Egyptian and Greek); its discovery allowed Egyptologists to decode hieroglyphs
Ancient Egyptians wrote on this material made from a reed-like plant that grows on the Nile River
the first woman to become pharaoh
an Egyptian book of spells read by priests during the mummification process; a copy was placed with the mummy
The Egyptians fought the _________ at the Battle of Q'Desh; they were the other superpower of the ancient world
a colossal stone statue located next to the Pyramids of Giza in Egypt. Carved out of limestone, it has the facial features of a man and the body of a lion
a simplified version of Egyptian hieroglypic wirting, used for business transactions, record keeping, etc
famous for saying there was only one god, the sun god. He ruled with his wife, Nefertiti, and they closed many of the temples to other gods. He was the father of the famous King Tut.
left the physical body and could then move around. They believed the Ka could drink and eat, but was stuck in the tomb in the body of the mummy
the name Ancient Egyptians used for the spiritual body or soul, that would leave the physical body and join with the sun god each day