The tendency for test takers to agree on most of the items is called a(n)
acquiescence response set.
the miss rate.
This test item is an example of a
Distractors that are obviously incorrect
lower the reliability of the test
increase the reliability of the test
have no impact on the reliability of the test
reduce the likelihood of correct guessing
True-false examinations use
a dichotomous format
a polytomous format.
a Likert format
a category format.
In multiple choice examinations, incorrect alternatives are called
The expected level of chance performance, for a 200-item multiple-choice exam with four choice alternatives, is
In order to correct for guessing
a correction formula can be used.
distractors should be eliminated.
the number of items should be increased.
distractors should be increased.
Suppose that you are taking a multiple choice test where there is no correction for guessing. If you aren't sure of the answer,
only guess if you have some confidence you are correct.
you should always guess on a speed test.
you should always guess.
you should never guess.
What describes the chances that a low-ability test taker will obtain each score?
acquiescence response set
the miss rate
the moments method
What format do some personality tests use because it requires an absolute judgment?
Which item format can best be factor analyzed to find which ones group together?
Suppose you got 75 items correct on a 100-item, six alternative, multiple-choice exam. What would your score be after we corrected for guessing?
Under what circumstance is it NOT to your advantage to guess on a multiple-choice exam?
when you are making a "wild guess" and a correction formula is being used
in any test situation where you are making a "wild guess"
when you can rule out one or more of the alternatives as being incorrect
when the guessing threshold is low
The difference between Likert scales and category formats is that
category formats are used only in health settings.
category formats tends to be dichotomous while Likert scales tends to be polytomous.
category formats tend to have a smaller number of choices.
Likert scales tend to have a smaller number of choices.
A test format that is typically used for attitude measurement is the
When distractors are likely to be selected as alternative responses on multiple-choice tests,
validity is increased
item reliability is increased
item reliability is decreased
guessing is reduced
One method for measuring chronic pain asks the respondent to group statements according to how accurately they describe his/her discomfort. This would be an example of the
The following is an item from an attitude scale:
Physical punishment is essential in order to control children.
Neither agree or disagree
This item is in the
One problem with the use of category rating scales is that
many respondents are confused by dichotomous formats.
responses are sometimes influenced by the context in which objects are rated.
rating scales must be at least 100 points in order to be meaningfully interpreted.
category rating scale data do not have ordinal scale property.
Describing the chances that low-ability test takers will obtain each score is called the
In general, studies have indicated that the race of the examiner
should be the same as that of the subject.
should be different than that of the subject.
is unrelated to test performance.
is not as important as sex of the examiner.
Studies on the effect of the race of the tester have demonstrated that
African-American children consistently score higher when they are tested by African-American examiners.
African-American children consistently score lower when they are tested by African-American examiners.
White children consistently score higher when they are tested by White examiners.
that the race of the examiner does not have a significant effect on the test scores of African-American or White children.
For children up through about the 3rd grade, a friendly examiner
significantly affects performance on a test.
does not significantly affect performance on a test.
increased IQ scores by nearly one standard deviation.
decreased IQ scores by nearly one standard deviation.
Dominic, a Caucasian male, is in the first grade and his reading skills are being assessed for placement next year. His teacher is out sick on the day of his assessment test. You can expect his test score to be
substantially higher than if the test were administered by the regular teacher
unaffected by the change in examiner.
significantly lower as a result of an unfamiliar examiner
nothing more than a reflection of his reading ability
Studies have demonstrated that
disapproving comments by an examiner can hinder test performance.
disapproving comments by the examiner can actually motivate children and enhance their performance.
too much approval by the examiner can hinder performance.
there is no relationship between the examiner's comments and test performance.
The "Rosenthal effect" occurs when
race of the tester produces a bias.
the administrators' expectations influence the respondents' scores.
test-takers do poorly because they are fatigued.
the gender of the test administrator is different than that of the examinee.
Rosenthal asserted that expectancy effects are likely to result from subtle uses of
gender and racial bias
Research on the effects of examiners' expectations upon test scores have shown that
examiners' expectations influence scores only when rapport has developed.
examiners' expectations have little effect upon test scores.
there is inconsistency with regard to the effect of examiners' expectations
too few studies have been done to draw any conclusions.
The school board decided to send professional test administrators into the schools in an attempt to establish stricter standardization procedures for the administration of IQ tests. If you are from a socio-economically disadvantaged area, you can expect that the test scores for your school district will
benefit greatly from the use of outside examiners.
be equal to the scores received by students in upper socio-economic groups.
be more negatively impacted by the use of unfamiliar examiners than for wealthier districts.
be more positively impacted by the use of unfamiliar examiners than for wealthier districts.
Studies on the effect of reinforcement upon intelligence test performance by African-American children (by Terrell and colleagues) suggest that
African-American children will improve their performance if given simple verbal praise such as "Excellent performance".
African-American children will not be affected by the administration of tangible awards.
only "culturally relevant" verbal praise will help boost performance by African-American children.
culturally specific feedback such as "Nice job, blood" alienates African-American youngsters and may damage test performance.
Mrs. Morgan and Mrs. Malcolm are African-American and only want an African-American examiner to administer an IQ test to their children. They
are justifiably concerned that their children's scores will be adversely affected by a Caucasian examiner.
are operating under the widely held myth that the race of the examiner impedes performance of African-American children.
realize that strict standards for proper test administration do not exist.
realize that it is important to have an examiner that is new and unknown to the test-taker.
Mr. and Mrs. Lozano have recently moved to Ohio from Mexico and have been notified that their son Reuben will be given an English IQ test to determine school placement. They should
not be concerned about the language of the test because one of the secretaries has offered to translate.
be pleased because the school is hiring a professional to translate the test especially for Reuben.
ask the school to only use a test that has been translated and subjected to reliability and validity studies in Spanish speaking populations.
realize that by testing their son in English, they are helping him to acculturate to his new environment much faster
Because situational variables can affect test scores, testing requires
at least two test administrators.
a test administrator and an observer.
test administrators with similar backgrounds and characteristics.
Patty has just received a graduate degree in psychology and has been hired by a local organization to administer the WAIS-R. They should
have no qualms about her qualifications for this position because she has a degree.
have no qualms about her qualifications because her program required that she engage in at least 5 practice administrations of this test.
be aware that errors are likely to be high unless she has completed at least 10 practice sessions.
realize test administer training is a highly standardized process with high quality standards.
Mrs. Collins and Mrs. Grey both administered the same IQ test to their regular classes by reading instructions, refraining from providing any verbal feedback, and generally following strict procedural guidelines. Even though the classes were comparable, Mrs. Grey's class had much lower test scores than Mrs. Collins. It is likely that
the instructions were not clear.
standard test administration does not work.
some subtle non-verbal cue or body language affected scores.
the race of the teachers affected test scores.
The Rosenthal effect
appears to be consistent but relatively small.
is limited to human subjects
has been consistently replicated
shows no gender effect
Worry, emotionality, and lack of self-confidence are the three components of
As sample size increases, expectancy effects tend to
become more important
The study by Terrell, et al. in which four groups of African-American children were provided four different kinds of feedback shows
an effect of race of examiner.
no difference between types of feedback.
the importance of culturally relevant rewards.
that tangible rewards outperform any verbal feedback.
Why is it of concern that there is not a standardized protocol for training on how to administer the WAIS-R?
Individuals with only undergraduate degrees are permitted to administer it, making training especially important.
The courts have repeatedly ordered the development of standardized training for the WAIS-R, but it has not been done.
There is no evidence that training will improve the ability of examiners to administer and score the WAIS-R.
Research indicates that errors are common until examiners have administered 10 practice tests and declines thereafter.
The personnel manager of ABC Company asked all of the applicants she interviewed the same questions in the same systematic fashion. She was conducting a(n) ____ interview.
An interview in which the person being interviewed is allowed to determine the direction of the interview is called a(n) ____ interview.
Which of the following differentiates between an interview and psychological tests in general?
how they are evaluated
whether they are administered individually or in groups
whether there is a standardized format
their importance for gathering information in clinical settings
Which test cannot be properly used without interview data?
The reciprocal nature of interviewing means
the participants of an interview do not influence each other's mood.
the participants of an interview are interdependent upon and influence each other.
an interview involves high activity among both participants.
if the interviewer is tense and anxious, the interviewee will tend to calm down.
Studies have shown that in an interview
high activity in one participant is associated with reduced activity in the other.
high activity in one participant is associated with increased activity in the other.
the activity of one participant has nothing to do with the activity of the other.
high activity in one participant tends to lead to hostility in the other.
Criminal interrogations can result in misleading information if an interrogator is highly active because
they make the suspect nervous and prone to make misleading statements.
the suspect's activity level increases, which increases the interrogator's suspiciousness.
hyperactive interrogators tend to miss important cues given by the suspect.
active interrogators tend to cause the suspect to clam up and refuse to make a statement.
David had graduated and secured two job interviews. He was quite nervous and in one interview, the interview team bickered among themselves and was rude to each other. In the other, the interview team was calm, relaxed, and welcoming. When he later thought about the interviews, David described himself as feeling very tense and even frightened in the first interview, and calm and confident in the second one. This is consistent with the idea of
During a job interview, Geoffrey found his behavior began to mimic the behavior of the nervous and disorganized interviewer. This is best described as an example of
The degree to which one person is able to influence another is known as
Social facilitation refers to
the phenomenon that we tend to act like the models around us
a method of interviewing
the best method of psychotherapy
a method of enhancing human relationships
Good interview behavior is more a matter of ____ than ____.
social skills; experience
acquired abilities; personality style
One study (Saccuzzo, 1975) found that the most important factor in a patient's evaluations of the quality of an interview was
the seriousness of their concerns
their mood state
the therapist's orientation
their perceptions of the interview's feelings
In social psychology, the degree to which people share a feeling of understanding, mutual respect, and similarity is known as
Deliberately inducing discomfort or anxiety in an interviewee
should always be avoided.
is likely to increase how much information an interviewee reveals
is related to the interviewer's training.
is appropriate for certain types of interviews.
The fact that Roger is more impressed by how much his therapist appeared to care, rather than the numerous diplomas and certificates on the therapist’s walls, suggests that Roger will likely evaluate the quality of the interview as
will put the interviewee on the defensive
do no carry judgmental overtone
should usually be avoided in an interview
communicate a deep sense of empathy
Which of the following directs anger toward the interviewee?
Which of the following communicates "I don't approve of this aspect of you?"
Which of the following demands more information than the interviewee would be willing to provide voluntarily?
What method of studying intelligence examines the properties of a test by evaluating its correlates and underlying dimensions?
Dr. Kang is investigating the mechanisms that underlie how humans learn and solve problems. She is using the ____ approach to investigate human intelligence.
Which of the following needs was the impetus for the development of intelligence testing?
classification of military recruits
identification of high quality civil service recruits
identification of individuals with intellectual disabilities
creation of vocational and technical colleges
In research investigating human intelligence, focusing on how humans adapt to real-world demands is called a ____ approach.
What is the oldest approach to investigating human intelligence?
The finding that a correlation exists between scores on all standardized intelligence tests and ____ has been a problem in defining intelligence.
Which of the following is part of Binet's definition of intelligence?
the level of quantitative skills
the ability to carry on abstract thinking
Binet believed that human intelligence was expressed through
socioeconomic status and level of education
positive self concept and gender.
judgment, attention, and reasoning
ethnicity and socioeconomic status
Binet's two major principles of test construction were
general mental ability and age differentiation
reliability and validity
norms and standardization
age differentiation and age scale
With the principle of age differentiation
one can find the equivalent age capabilities of a child independently of chronological age.
one can find the equivalent age capabilities of a child if their chronological age is known.
the deviation IQ can be ascertained
Binet freed himself from the burden of identifying each independent aspect of intelligence.
The tasks that Binet used to differentiate between age groups could be completed by what percentage of the children in a particular age group?
at least 50%
between 50% and 75%
between 66.67% and 75%
The concept that older children have greater capabilities than younger children is referred to as
general mental ability
the principle of age differentiation
What technique is more commonly used today in order to evaluate age equivalent capabilities?
item response theory
With the concept of general intelligence
Binet's search for tasks could be unrestricted.
Binet was forced to ascertain the relative contribution of each element to the whole.
the value of a task could be judged in terms of its correlation with the total score.
each element of intelligence must first be identified.
Which of the following is an implication of Binet’s concept of general mental ability?
Individual items that do not correlate well with the total score can be eliminated.
A broad range of diverse items must be included
Variability in the ability to perform specific skills should be minimal.
Those who are high in general mental ability will also be high in specific mental abilities
A major implication of general intelligence is that
a person's intelligence can best be represented by a single score.
human intelligence is broad and general
human intelligence is the interaction among a broad range of specific abilities.
human intelligence refers to good judgment, reasoning, concentration, attention, etc.
To support the notion of g, Spearman developed a statistical technique called
analysis of variance.
Spearman suggested that the variance that is shared by a set of tests/scores represents
the g factor.
According to Spearman, what percentage of the variance in a set of mental ability tests is represented by the g factor?
According to the concept of general intelligence, a person's intelligence score actually represents
differences in unique ability stemming from a specific task.
the additive score on a broad variety of tasks.
the shared variance underlying performance on a diverse set of tasks.
abilities on a particular test as compared to others within the same age group
Among his motivations for the development of the Wechsler scales of intelligence, was David Wechsler's belief that
one underlying mental ability was solely responsible for the concept of intelligence.
a single intelligence score was the most appropriate measure of human intelligence.
human intelligence was significantly influenced by nonintellectual factors.
existing intelligence scales were adequate to measure the intelligence of all age groups.
Because he used a point scale, Wechsler was able to
determine age level performance.
assign points on an all or none basis.
only analyze one area of ability.
group similar content items together.
The separate subscale used to measure nonverbal intelligence in the Wechsler scale is called a(n)
One of the most influential advocates of the role of nonintellectual factors in intelligence tests is
A major criticism of the Binet scale by Wechsler was that
the Binet Scale was not an appropriate measure of adult intelligence.
the concept of an age scale was outdated.
it was not reliable.
the norms did not include non-whites.
The original Wechsler scale was the first one that
was capable of directly comparing verbal and nonverbal measures.
used a large, representative sample.
used a performance scale.
could be generalized to various populations.
was well standardized.
had a normative sample consisting of a representative sample of adults.
included a standardization sample that was larger than any before or since.
used separate subscales to measure adult intelligence
The Wechsler tests employs a(n)
age scale concept.
criterion IQ concept.
self-reference point concept.
point scale concept.
In a point scale,
items are grouped according to age level and content.
points are assigned to each item.
items cannot be presented in order of increasing difficulty.
subjects receive some points even for items that are missed.
The concept of a Performance Scale
was introduced by Wechsler in 1939
was introduced prior to the development of the Wechsler-Bellevue.
was found to be more applicable to adults than to children.
was found to be more applicable to children than to adults.
Which of the following is true of the Wechsler Scales?
Items have content validity for adults.
They are most useful with adults.
They are administered in groups
They have limited reliability in clinical settings.
The main reason for including a performance scale in a measure of intelligence is to
increase ease of administration.
improve examiner-examinee rapport
overcome language, cultural, and educational factors.
Which of the following is a component of Wechsler's definition of intelligence?
capacity to act purposefully
Which of the following is true of the Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Scale?
It is appropriate for children but not adults.
Its normative sample was non-representative
It has a verbal scale, but, unlike the other Wechsler scales, not a performance scale.
It is unfair to older adults.
The information subtest of the WAIS-IV measures
range of knowledge.
The comprehension subtest of the WAIS-IV measures
analysis of part whole relationships.
common sense or judgment.
The arithmetic subtest of the WAIS-IV measures
alertness to details.
common sense or judgment
The similarities subtest of the WAIS-IV measures
The digit span subtest of the WAIS-IV measures
Which WAIS-IV subtest asks questions such as, "What should you do if you see an injured person lying in the street?"