Each question in this quiz is timed.
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What contribution did Plato have on a science epistemology?
Knowledge is justified
A priori/posteri analytic/synthetic
Theory of forms
Who were the logical positivists?
Arcesilaus, Carneades, Cicero
Popper, Kuhn, Heidegger, Hempel
Plato, Socrates, Aristotle
Carnap, Schlick, Ayer, Hempel
What was the philosophical backbone of logical positivism?
Kantian thought and socialism
Truth and knowledge need not be meaningful or verifiable as long as it is logical
Truth and knowledge must be meaningful and verifiable
Reaction against metaphysics
What lead to the decline of logical positivism?
Metaphysical philosophy was regaining public support
Scientific laws were considered unverifiable
No valid deductive logic
True moral statements were verifiable, which lead to public outrage
What was Popper's argument against convention?
All possible theories can be tested in all possible means
Knowledge is certain given sufficient evidence
Belief can be objective
Knowledge is never certain
What was Popper's proposed alternative to conventional epistemology?
Test all theories in all possible tests
'Post hoc query'
Verisimilitude - consider all knowledge uncertain
What is the dynanism and growth of scientific knowledge formula?
Who were major figures in the science of decision making?
Kahneman and Tversky
Tsversky and Loftus
Rest and Kahneman
Franklin and Loftus
What were Kahneman and Tversky's conclusions concerning human decision making?
humans commit more errors than they realize
Heuristics prevent decision making errors
Errors in judgement are the result of poor intelligence of lack of expertise
Errors are less likely under uncertain conditions (less opportunity for bias)
Do basketball players get hot hands?
No, they're delusional
No, their wins and losses proceed randomly despite their feelings on the matter
Yes, 'hot hands' refers to 'being in the zone' and players certainly experience that phenomenon
Yes, because their hands get sweaty (what kind of question is this?)
What does Garb say about anecdotal evidence and romanticisation of clinical psychology?
Validity of case formulations are poor.
Causal judgements are often made by the clinician. These are often accurate.
Unstructured interviews are often more successful than structured interview.
Validity of case formulations are poor due to heuristics only.
What should be the stages of clinical practice according to Garb?
a) description, b) diagnosis, c) case formulation, d) prediction, e) decision making
a) description, b) case formulation, c) diagnosis, d) prediction, e) decision making
a) description, b) decision making, c) case formulation, d) diagnosis, e) prediction
a) case formulation, b) description, c) diagnosis), d) prediction, e) decision making
Military records suggest ___% WW1 veterans receiving PTSD compensation are pretenders.
When is interrater reliability for the DSM-3 agreeable?
When semi-structured interviews are used.
When unstructured interviews are used.
When the DSM-3 criteria is adhered to.
When the raters know each other.
What is the anchoring heuristic?
When you rely too heavily on an initial piece of information and it biases subsequent responses.
Like a framing effect, you incorrectly judge two similar or dissimilar statements to solve an issue.
Your preconceived notion of the task/information biases it regardless of the information provided to you.
A stereotype is presented in the information which makes it difficult to judge prototypical information.
Loftus's first study (1975) was conducted in relation to Nixon's first visit to China and Russia. Subjects estimated a prediction of the actual outcome. 3/4rds estimated the initial prediction as higher. Why did this happen?
The event was easy to predict.
Loftus's "lost in the mall" technique provided subjects with short narratives describing childhood events. The "lost in the mall" memory was false. What percentage of participants incorrectly 'remembered' the event?
Theory of knowledge, especially with regard to its methods, validity, scope, and distinction between justified belief and opinion.
Theory of knowledge, especially with regards to its proponents, validity, and scope.
Theory of knowledge, especially with regards to its validity, scope, and regard to objectivity. Belief or opinion is irrelevant.
Theory of knowledge. This includes proponents, validity, scope, differences between justified belief, opinion, including what happens to be in the public conscience at the time. Is flexible and prone to alteration due to social changes.
What is fact?
A fact is a hypothesis subject to change.
A theory subject to change.
A working hypothesis, not subject to change.
A fact is not prone to error.
How can cognitive and memory biases impact psychological practice? Choose best example.
Cognitive laziness leads to error proneness.
Representativeness heuristic - biological disorders will be treated without biological treatments.
Confirmation bias - clinicians search for information to confirm not discomfirm personal theories or preconceptions.
Hindsight bias - clinicians feel like they know the cause and history of a disorder, yet remain open to alternatives.
What is the most valid criticism of the science practitioner model?
The science practitioner model is still young, and is therefore unreliable. There isn't a stable literature on the subject.
Practitioners don't research, or don't always use research effectively in their practice. The model is idealistic.
The science practitioner model discourages clinicians from pursuing their passions by forcing research aptitude into them.
Training clinicians in scientific theory and methods is a waste of time since clinical work has the primary goal of helping others and research is thus irrelevant.
When was the Boulder Conference?
After Shakow's recommendations to the New York Psychiatric Institute were accepted and were forwarded to the AAAP, what happened?
There was the Penn State conference, where the institute on professional training for clinical psychologists met.
There was the Boulder conference, where the institute on professional training for clinical psychologists met.
There was the AAAP conference, where the institute on professional training for clinical psychologists met.
There was the APA conference, where the institute on professional training for clinical psychologists met.
What was the result of the Boulder conference?
70 resolutions agreed upon from 15 agenda issues to discuss.
60 resolutions agreed upon from 12 agenda issues to discuss.
80 resolutions agreed upon from 20 agenda issues to discuss.
50 resolutions agreed upon from 15 agenda issues to discuss.
What was one of the major historical influences leading to the Boulder conference?
The asylum hygiene movement.
The psychological toll on WWI and WWII veterans, and the US government's attempt to address the psychological need of veterans.
Mental asylums were overcrowded. They were becoming "warehouses for lost humanity".
Psychiatrists could not manage the large number of patients with psychological complaints.
When did federal legislation end "lunatic asylum"'s reign as America's solution to the mentally ill?
The late 1900's.
The late 1800's.
The late 1700's.
The late 1600's.
What was John Locke's legacy in British Empiricism?
Tabula rasa - that knowledge was acquired by experience
Intellect, sensibilities, and will.
The Just Noticeable Difference (JND).
Two sources of acquiring knowledge: sensation and perception.
What was Thomus Upham's contribution to empicisism?
He authored the first textbook, and suggested three realms of mental faculty: intellect, sensibilities, and will.
Suggested knowledge is acquired by experience. Also wrote a textbook on the topic.
Claimed that one can learn about the mind by observing the senses.
Noted that the relationship between stimulus properties and perception is logarithmic.
What was Ernst Weber's legacy? Choose the best answer.
Weber-Fechner law - including The Just Noticeable Difference (JND)
The Just Noticeable Difference (JND)
Demonstrating that the JND is a non linear function of stimulus magnitude
That perception could be quantified.
What role did Fechner play in psychophysics?
Demonstrated the relationship between stimulus properties and perception is logarithmic, adding to the JND.
Demonstrated the relationship between stimulus properties and perception is linear, adding to the JND.
Demonstrated the relationship between stimulus properties and perception is hyperbolic, adding to the JND.
Demonstrated the relationship between stimulus properties and perception is the inverse of perceived magnitude, adding to the JND.
The earliest reference to the brain as the seat of the mind was...
The Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus
What was the Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus?
An ancient egyptian surgical manual documenting 48 wartime cases of head lesion, including the induction of seizure by "palpate his wound" - the wound being on the brain.
An ancient egyptian surgical manual documenting 5 cases of brain tumor, including the removal of said tumor. "Shouldst thou find something disturbing therin under thy fingers"...
An ancient egyptian surgical manual documenting 15 cases of seizure after manual palpation of the brain tissue.
An ancient egyptian surgical manual documenting 35 wartime cases of head lesion, and how to disinfect and manage the wounds.
The deinstitutionalisation marking the release of 100,000 asylum patients was triggered by...
The Community Mental Health Centers Act of 1963, signed by President John Kennedy.
The renaming of the Medical Superintendents of American Institutions for the Insane to the American Psychiatric Association.
The superintendents (head of asylums) were given the role of psychiatrist.
The growth of over 300 mental asylums by the 1960's.
Psychiatrists "reinvented" themselves by the 1920s with treatments like...
Frontal lobotomies for managing "difficult cases".
Which surgeon worked on the case of Loborgne ('Tan'), who had a 21 year history of progressive speech loss?
Who was the psychiatrist who applied an electrical current to the motor cortex of a dog, who was standing on their appartment's kitchen table?
What was Santiago Ramon y Cajal's contribution to neuroscience/psychology? Choose best answer.
Documented the famous case of 'Tan', a man with a 21 year history of progressive speech loss.
Made anatomically precise drawings of different types of neurons in the brain.
Identified many brain regions, including the various visual cortices.
Identified the motor cortex by applying an electrical current to a dog in his appartment.
Who was Wilhelm Wundt?
A professor of philosophy at the University of Leipzig who started the first psychological laboratory in 1879.
The first to show experimental methods could apply to higher order cognition.
Founded the first psychological laboratory as John Hopkins, and started the first Psychology department at Clark.
Developed a battery of mental tests.
Who started the APA?
Franz Joseph Gall
Who started the first psychological clinic in 1896?
Franz J. Gall
Who developed Phrenology (otherwise known as "If your skull is bumpy in a certain area that correlates to a brain area and so your personality".
Who came up with the idea that reaction time was related to mental processing speed?
The first American scale of Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon's works were published as the "Binet and Simon Tests of Intellectual Capacity" by...
Henry Herbert Goddard
Beers (1908) published a book on his mistreatment (and that of others) in mental asylums and called for reform. Which psychiatrist took notice of his work?
The Emmanuel Movement, concerned with psychologically-based religious healing, was started by whom?
To increase psychological resources, the VA, USPHS, and APA worked together to dramatically increase the rate of PhD clinical psychologists. What success did they have at the end of the first year of their program?
VA funded 200 doctoral students at 22 universities.
VA funded more than 1500 students at 50 universities.
VA funded 200 doctoral students at 50 universities.
VA funded more than 1500 students at 22 universities.
What did David Shakow write his dissertation on? (Also, why is this relevant? I dunno, it's in the notes.)
Depressive and anxious patients.
Obsessive compulsive patients.
There are three broad types of validity. What are they?
Content, Criterion, Construct.
Content, Predictive, Concurrent.
Content, Criterion, Predictive.
Predictive, Concurrent, Construct.
In Coaley's Taxonomy of Assessment, what are the two major divisions of measurement?
Measurement and Non-measurement
Content and Criterion
Validity and Reliability
Interviews and Surveys
What are the two types of criterion validity?
Predictive and concurrent
Construct and content
Concurrent and construct
Predictive and content
Define criterion validity.
Degree to which a test samples the domain and elicits responses in a responsible way.
Correlations between scale scores and other criteria or sources.
The measure agrees with other measures of the same type.
Measures should correlate with those like it, not those dissimilar to it.
Define content validity.
Extent to which variance score reflects variance of actual construct.
Measures should correlate with those similar not dissimilar.
How should the variance associated with a new given measure be partitioned?
a. variance of scores on new test, b. shared variance, c. variance of scores on criterion measure
a. variance of representative sample, b. variance of non representative sample, c. variance of clinical population of interest.
a. within subjects variance, b. between subjects variance, c. error variance
a. variance of criterion, b. variance of measure 1, c. variance of measure 2.
In Coaley's Taxonomy of Assessment, what is considered "non-measurement"?
Correct/incorrect item responses
Not using correct/incorrect responses
What is a nominal scale?
Distance is meaningful
Attributes can be ordered
Attributes are only named
What is factorial validity?
scores are mixed with scores of other tests, similar and dissimilar, and subject to factor analysis
determines any increase in validity and whether this is significant, when an assessment is added to others
correlations relating to different aspects of the criterion measurement also tend to have different values
tests hypothesized not to be similar are not
What is the multi-trait multi-method approach?
More consistent and elaborate form of convergent-discriminant validity; can be used to demonstrate construct validity
A combination of factorial validity, differential validity, and incremental validity
Using a regression on factors associated with a measure to see what items are associated with more error -> to be removed
Multiple raters perform independent factor analysis on the measure and then a Factor Rater Score is calculated.
What is discriminant validity?
Tests hypothesized not to be similar are not.
Correlations related to different aspects of the criterion measurement also tend to have different values.
used to demonstrate construct validity
Comparing at least 5 other measures that are similar in order to identify bad items
What is the most robust measure of central tendency?
What percentage of scores is encompassed within 1 SD + and - the mean within the normal distribution?
What is the Blinkhorn Effect?
When you cherry pick the best correlations from your data
Missing a vital piece of statistical information because you experienced an inattentional blink
Removing items with weird variance to improve the robustness of your test
Removing bad data points and replacing them with bootstrapped estimates to improve your test
What are the 'faux friends' of validity?
Face validity, faith validity
Face validity, inter rater judgements
Faith validity, inter rater judgements
Face validity, faith validity, inter rater judgements
What is the Pollyana Effect?
Belief of test users in the value of certain assessments and their attitudes towards them
People tend to remember positive items more than negative ones
Heuristics interfere with the measure of a test
When framing effects influence a subject's response on the measure
Which statement is the most correct?
Reliability is possible without validity, but validity is not possible without reliability
Reliability is possible without validity, but validity is possible without reliability
Reliability is not possible without validity, and validity is not possible without reliability
Reliability is not possible without validity, but validity is possible without reliability
What does Classical Test Theory state about a person's observed score (X)?
X = T + e
X = T + we + be + e
X = T + we + e
X = (T + T2)/2 + e
Which reliability is "consistent across tests"?
parallel forms reliability
Which reliability is consistent across time?
Which reliability is consistent between items?
What is one issue associated with alternate forms reliability?
difficult to construct perfectly equivalent tests
equivalence means your test is redundant
inter-judge agreement is never perfect
What is one of the issues associated with test-retest reliability?
length of the interval between the two tests
what the subject had for breakfast that morning
not measuring reliability directly
if the test changes then your retest measure is worthless
What is an example of a measure of internal consistency?
the variance across items
principal components analysis
What is an example of a systematic error?
scale score is consistently too high or low
the weather on the day of testing is consistently bad
never obtaining the true score
subject's cognitions at the time of testing
I just got a reliability coefficient for my new scale on Honours Students Neuroticism Causes - it's .5! That's...
What is local dependence?
If X scores increase on Y then they will on Z.
errors of measurement from 2 unreliable variables correlate significantly
an honours student is dependent on their supervisor for guidance
the test-retest reliability of a test depends on its validity
Confidence intervals vary as a function of reliability.
The Parallel Testing Model uses test-retest reliability
Platonic "true" scores are possible to achieve.
What is the Domain Sampling Model?
average score over infinite testing
average score over three testing sessions
test-retest reliability but using the median instead of the mean
test-retest reliability over multiple testing sessions and checking for changes in possible factors
What are sources of error variance for the generalisability approach to reliability?
Content differences across test forms
Content differences within the test
The Masculinity/Femininity scale in the MMPI was designed to...
see to what extent someone embodies feminine/masculine traits
class men/women according to their stereotypical gender roles
detect gender norm deviants
What was one of Yerkes's roles in the development of intelligence testing?
opposed an age-scale approached and favored the point-scale approach
translated the Alfred Binet
came up with the concept of g, the main factor underlying intelligence
first to decide that intelligence was made of both verbal and non-verbal intelligence
The Army Alpha and Beta intelligence scale was developed by...
Who translated the Alfred Binet into the Stanford Binet?
Wechsler designed new intelligence tests.
Galton's original intelligence test failed because...
reaction time, keen sight, and squeeze strenght were unrelated to intelligence, but related to motor and perceptual function
early versions of the block test, language comprehension test, and number recall were poorly designed
reaction time was related to intelligence, but only if measured in the millisecond range
it was developed for children and failed to apply to adults
Which edition of the Stanford Binet adapted Weschler's multiscale multitask format?
The Wechsler-Bellevue I intelligence scale (1939) was made for...
children or retarded adults
The verbal concept information construct in the WAIS-IV tests crystallized intelligence.
The WAIS-IV construct PRI measures...
fluid reasoning, spatial processing, visual-motor integration
temporary retention of information, mental manipulation, attention, concentration, mental control
verbal concept formation, verbal reasoning, acquired knowledge, crystallized intelligence
processing speed, scanning, learning
The WAIS-IV construct WMI measures...
The WAIS-IV construct PSI measures...
What are three different tasks in the VCI construct (WAIS-IV)?
Provide concepts that link two words, vocabulary, information (general knowledge)
assemble blocks, visual puzzles, matrix reasoning
arithmetic, symbol search, coding
Raven's matrices, concept linking, arithmetic
Inter-rater reliability r scores for the Similarities, Vocubulary, Information, and Comprehension subtests for the WAIS-IV are closest to:
When was the NEO inventory started (note: not completed)?
The NEO personality inventory in 1985 had what general structure?
6 facets for each NEO, and brief global A+C.
4 facets for each NEO, and brief global A+C.
8 facets for each NEO, and brief global A+C.
5 facets for each NEO, and brief global A+C,
The NEO-FFI (1989) included norms for...
college students and adults
college students and children
college students, children, and adults
children and adults
The NEO-PI-R (1992) version had norms for...
adults only, with those younger only under special circumstances
children only, with those older only for mental retardation
adults and children
One of the changes to the NEO-PI-R (1992) was...
New A and C scales+facets
replacement of 20 NEO items
rewording of 10 NEO items
Addition of 5 new A and C scales and facets
Scores in the NEO-PI-R are presented as t-scores.
The NEO-PI-R consists of...
240 questions answered on 5-point Likert scale
200 questions answered on 7-point Likert scale
150 questions answered True or False
300 questions answered True or False
What is one of the main disadvantages of the NEO-PI-R?
Does not quantify cognitive abilities or distortions
Does not adequately take into account the A + C constructs
Its validity scales do not work correctly
Norms are not recent
NEO-PI-R has validity scales.
Miller (1991) suggested that:
there is clinical utility for personality inventories in guiding treatment
there is no clinical utility for personality inventories in guiding treatment
treatment should not be guided by personality scores since they may change throughout the course of treatment
the NEO-PI-R and MMPI could be used in tandem for an accurate clinical picture of a patient
Singer (2005) suggested that personality inventories were:
the first phase for treating a patient
the second phase for treating a patient
innappropriate for use in clinical practice without additional information
is useful for formulating a diagnosis
In regards to twin studies of intelligence, what is an individuality multiplier?
shared environmental factors are masked -> variance attributed to genes
environment differs so variance interpreted as gene changes
changes in intelligence over time due to environment alone
the twin's non-shared traits interact with the environment to produce even greater non shared traits
In regards to twin studies of intelligence, what is a social multiplier?
environment differences interpreted as gene changes
changes in intelligence over time attributed to the environment alone
if a twin has a different social group to their other twin, the social group will encourage the development of traits they value regardless of the twin's values
Low agreeableness and low conscientiousness is associated with...
High neuroticism and low extraversion is associated with...
obsessive compulsive disorder
schizoid personality disorder
What is g's correlation to working memory?
Neurobiological research supports IQ represented by how many factors?
According to Sternberg et al. (1999, 2000) to what degree is practicality (ability to solve concrete problems) and creativity (come up with novel solutions) correlated to IQ?
not at all
g(F) is can be measured by Raven's Progressive Matrices.
White twins from rich backgrounds have a lower heritability estimate than poor whites or blacks.
The book, The Bell Curve, authored by Richard Hernstein and Charles Murray in 1994 suggested IQ is little influenced by environmental factors.
According to Nisbett et al. (2012), adoption studies may tend to overestimate the role of the environment and underestimate the role of genetics due to the restricted social class range of adoptive homes.
According to Nisbett et al. (2012), what progress has been made on finding genes associated with normal IQ variation?
Over 282 individual genes for mental retardation found, very little in those associated with normal intelligence
Over 282 individual genes for normal intelligence, very little for those with mental retardation
Over 874 individual genes for mental retardation found, very little associated with normal intelligence
Over 902 individual genes for mental retardation found, very few associated with normal intelligence.
Breast feeding has been associated with... (Nisbett et al., 2012)
+6 IQ points for normal weighted infants, +8 for premature
+3 IQ points for normal weighted infants, +5 for premature
+1 IQ point for normal weighted infants, +3 for premature
No changes in IQ
High socio-economic status has been associated with... (Nisbett et al., 2012)
+12 IQ points than low SES
+6 IQ points than low SES
+3 IQ points than low SES
no differences between high SES IQ and low SES IQ
Is there an IQ difference for first-borns in a family? (Nisbett et al., 2012)
Yes, about 3+ IQ
Yes, about 1+ IQ
Yes, about 5+ IQ
What is the Flynn Effect?
A substantial and long-term increase in worldwide IQ from 1930.
When environmental influences to IQ are overlooked in favor of genetic explanations.
Non shared environments within a family impacts IQ more than shared environments.
IQ increases when low SES individuals are placed into a high SES environment.
An IQ score of 70 is the cutting point for immunity from the death penalty in the USA.
Damage in the prefrontal cortex is associated with...
decreased performance on Raven's Progressive Matrices
decreased performance related to task content
reduction in sex-based IQ differences
The frontal and temporal lobes are related to what in terms of IQ...
performance on the MMPI
IQ differences of 15 points between black and whites reported in 1996 is thought to be genetically related.
Digit Span on the WAIS-IV is useful at the lower end of intelligence functioning.
The WAIS-IV's Picture Completion Task is not biased by gender or object familiarity.
Conscientiousness has a protective role on mortality.
Neuroticism, negative emotion, and hostility are positively associated with mortality.
The more neurotic you are, the more likely you are to get a divorce. (Roberts et al., 2007)
If you have high conscientiousness and agreeableness, you're more likely to become divorced than if you had low conscientiousness and agreeableness. (Roberts et al. 2007)
What is one of the major changes in the norms for the MMPI-2-RF and the MMPI-2?
no gender norms
norms for adolescents added
norms for children added
Which has the largest number of items - the MMPI-2-RF, the MMPI-2, or the MMPI-A?
The MMPI-2, followed by the MMPI-A, then the MMPI-2-RF.
The MMPI-2-RF, followed by the MMPI-2, then MMPI-A.
The MMPI-A, followed by the MMPI-2-RF, then MMPI-2.
The MMPI-2-RF, followed by the MMPI-A, then MMPI-2.
The MMPI-A contains extra scales unique only to the MMPI-A.
The asylum movement in America was spawned by...
The MMPI was developed when, by whom?
1930s by Hathaway and McKinley
1930s by Harris and Lingoes
1940s by Weiner and Harmon
1940s by Krueger and Kendler
Kraepelinian syndromes means...
symptom clusters in the MMPI
based on existing knowledge of symptom clusters and syndromes
symptom clusters based on classic psychoanalytic casework
symptom clusters based on 1800s syndrome research
What were the validity scales on the original MMPI?
Cannot Say, Lie, Infrequency, Correction.
Variable Response Inconsistency, Uncommon Virtues, Adjustment Validity, Infrequent Responses.
True Response Inconsistency, Infrequent Psychopathology Response, Symptom Validity, Response Bias Scale.
Uncommon Virtues, Lie, Response Bias Scale, Adjustment Validity.
What was one of the major problems of the original MMPI?
There were no norms for code types
Some of the clinical scales were outdated
The profiles it produced were non-discriminatory
The validity scales produced too many false positives
Can the MMPI distinguish between delinquent and non-delinquent females?
Yes, based on Pd, Sc, and Ma elevations.
Yes, based on D, MF, Si elevations.
No. Only the MMPI-A can do that.
Yes, based on Pd, D, and Si elevations.
The first full-fledged effort to examine internal consistency of the MMPI was done by...
Hataway and McKinley (1940)
Hathaway and Monachesi (1953)
One of the major changes introduced to the MMPI-2 included...
The removal of items dealing with religion, sexuality, sexist language, or awkwardly phrased sentences.
The removal of several validity scales.
Adding the clinical scale Demoralization, effectively removing repetitive items from clinical subscales.
Removal of gender norms.
Psychasthenia in the MMPI-2 refers to...
Tendency to experience negative emotions
In Watson and Tellegen's (1985) two-dimensional emotion map, what is the opposite of High Positive Affect?
Low Positive Affect
High Negative Affect
Two main factors associated with the clinical scales were Demoralisation and...
A second factor uncorrelated with Demoralisation.
A second factor mildly correlated with Demoralisation.
A second factor moderately correlated with Demoralisation.
a second factor highly correlated with Demoralisation.
Studies have shown that the RC scales map well onto...
previous scales of the MMPI
MPQ and NEO-PI-R
the Demoralisation scale
the second facttor in the MMPI-RC scales
What does the Symptom Validity scale detect?
the underreporting of symptoms
the overreporting of symptoms
Somatic complaints infrequent in the medical patient populations
exaggerated memory complaints
Which of these is NOT a MMPI-2-RF higher order scales?
The Watson (2005) hierarchical structure of mood and anxiety disorders classifies emotional disorders into two broad categories. What are they?
Cognitive and Emotional
Distress and Fear
Panic and Social
Depressive and Anxious
In the MMPI-2-RF Internalizing Hierarchy, there are 3 broad categories underneath the heading Emotional-Internalising Dysfunction. What are they?
Demoralisation, Low Positive Emotions, Dysfunctional Negative Emotions
Distress, Fear, Panic
Demoralisation, Distress, Fear
Demoralisation, Negative Positive Emotions, Low Negative Emotions
Demoralisation, Lack of Positive Emotions, Presence of Dysfunctional Negative Emotions
Externalising disorders have a common genetic underpinning.
The scientist-practitioner model has been described as embodying three concepts. Which of the following is NOT one of those espoused by Shakow?
Butler et al's (2005) review of CBT efficacy found...
antidepressant drugs were superior to CBT
CBT had a low efficacy on marital distress
CBT had a moderate efficacy on preventing sexual assault repeat offending
chronic pain was treated moderately well with CBT
Butler et al's (2005) review on CBT efficacy found...
large uncontrolled effect sizes for CBT efficacy for schizophrenia
large uncontrolled effect sizes for CBT efficacy for depression
large uncontrolled effect sizes for CBT efficacy for OCD
large uncontrolled effect sizes for CBT for childhood somatic disorders
In Butler et al's (2005) study on CBT efficacy large effect sizes were found for the treatment of...
social phobia with agoraphobia only
According to Butler (2005)'s review on CBT efficacy, one disorder requiring more attention regarding CBT is...
sexual repeat offending
Is CBT case conceptualisation reliable?
Descripive levels of presenting issues reliable, inference about causal influences is not.
Descripive levels of presenting issues not reliable, inference about causal influences is.
Focused training of case conceptualisation does not improve the coherence and quality of case conceptualisation across therapy modules.
A generic approach used for identifying triggers and maintenance factors of a problem for case conceptualisation is...
trigger maintenance survey
What was the maintenance cycle of 'Beth''s PTSD in the Kuyken et al. paper?
Memories of abuse and violence + triggers => current threat => cutting => cognitive elaboration <=> (repeat)
current threat => Memories of abuse and violence + triggers => cutting => cognitive elaboration <=> (repeat)
current threat => Memories of abuse and violence + triggers => cognitive elaboration => cutting <= => (repeat)
current threat => Memories of abuse and violence + triggers + cutting => cognitive elaboration => cutting <= => (repeat)
Panic disorder affects up to _% of the population at some point in their life. (Fill in blank.)
Changes in neural circuits in people with panic disorder does NOT include...
lowered amygdala volume
lowered temporal lobe volume
reduced frontal lobe volume
reduced orbitofrontal flow
The belief that anxiety could cause deleterious physical, social, and psychological consequences beyond those immediate in an actual panic attack is a risk factor for onset of panic disorder.
Anxiety sensitivity predicts more variance in panic disorder onset than neuroticism.
The ____ is thought to mediate anxiety sensitivity.
The current preferred drug treatment for panic disorder is...
_ is an effective drug for panic disorder in non-responding CBT patients.
Hypnosis is a helpful treatment alternative to CBT for panic disorder.
The legacy of the Boulder conference included:
a resolution that provided an opening for the introduction of the scientist-practitioner model of professional training in psychology.
cooperation of the American Psychological Association, the United States Public Health Service, and the Veterans Association.
a resolution that provided an opening for the introduction of the scientist-practitioner model of professional training in psychology AND cooperation of the American Psychological Association, the United States Public Health Service, and the Veterans Association.
none of the above
Benjamin (2000) argues that the founding of scientific psychology dates from the establishment of the research laboratory at the University of Leipzeig by:
Hermann von Helmholtz
Early psychology laboratories were founded in the United States of America by the likes of:
G. Stanley Hall and Lightner Witmer
James McKeen Cattell and Elwood Worcester
G. Stanely Hall and James McKeen Cattell
Lightner Witmer and Elwood Worcester
O'Gorman (2001) reported that Eysenck in 1949 argued that therapy was NOT a role for clinical psychologists but for psychiatrists. Instead, Eysenck was reported as seeing the task of clinical psychologist as embracing:
assessment and diagnosis
diagnosis and research
assessment and research
assessment, diagnosis, and research
The scientist-practitioner model has been criticised for:
several shortcomings, but without sound argument or reliable evidence
failing to adopt an integrative approach to science and practice
failing to appropriately value the contribution of practice to practitioner skill
failing to adopt an integrative approach to science and practice AND failing to appropriately value the contribution of practice to practitioner skill
Since the early 20th century, the American public's stereotype of a psychologist has been:
a psychoanalytic one
a psychodynamic one
an assessment and diagnosis one
a behaviorist one
The beginnings of clinical and school psychology in the USA are associated with:
James McKeen Cattell's mental testing
the Emmanuel movement
the Mental Hygiene Movement
Which event brought greater public attention to the issues of mental health in the USA in the 20th century?
Elwood Worcester's Emmanuel movement
Beer and Meyer's Mental Hygiene movement
Sigmund Freud's series of lectures on psychoanalysis at Clark University in response to an invitation from Stanley G. Hall.
Morton Prince's publication of 'The Dissociation of Personality'
the psychiatric community called for an end to clinical psychology
clinical psychologists called for an end to psychiatry
the psychiatric community called for an end to clinical psychology AND to psychiatry
In 1937, the short-lived American Association for Psychology (AAAP) was founded with an initial organisational structure focused on:
assessment, diagnosis, prevention, and therapy
assessment, diagnosis, education, and industry
clinical matters, consulting, education, and industry
clinical matters, education, industry, and prevention
The practice of clinical psychology between the two world wars was essentially about:
The emergence of modern clinical psychology was related to:
use of psychology in WW1
use of psychology in WW2
major in-fighting in the psychiatric community
a plan to develop the science and profession of psychology after WW2
Benjamin (2005) says, “it can be argued that the modern profession of clinical psychology was established … by”:
federal government agencies seeking to meet a wartime and post-wartime need
the psychological community
Personality assessment was well-established in the practice of clinical psychology in the USA by the 1940s. Which of the following tests was NOT in use at that time?
the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
the NEO inventories
the Rorschach projective test
the Thematic Apperception Test
Managed care in the US was said by Benjamin (2005) to end the golden age of clinical psychology, equated with the decades of the 1960s and 1970s. Managed care impacted negatively on the practice of clinical psychologists from the 1980s by:
increasing the fees charged for mental health services
limiting patient access to mental health services
increasing fees charged for mental health services AND limiting patient access to mental health services
heavily subsidising fees charged by psychiatrists for psychotherapy
Benjamin (2005) comments that, “traditional strengths of doctoral education in psychology [have included] that students”:
are able to avoid paying exorbitant fees that they would otherwise need to pay if pursuing a Master’s-level qualification
are taught methodological skills and are trained as critical thinkers and problem solvers
bolster the publication rate of academic professors
all of the above
What are the FIRST three steps in conducting a meta-analysis? (note: there are 6 steps total)
1. Searching for studies, 2. Selecting the studies, 3. Defining the review question and eligibility criteria.
1. Defining the review question and eligibility criteria, 2. Searching for studies, 3. Selecting the studies.
1. Defining the review question and eligibility criteria, 2. Selecting the studies. 3. Data extraction.
1. Searching for studies, 2. Defining the review question and eligibility critera, 3. Cleaning studies.
What is a disadvantage of meta-analysis?
Obscures qualitative data
Obscures quantitative data
Magnitude of effects
What is a moderator variable? (Hint: contrast with mediator).
A variable that influences the strength of a relationship between two other variables
A variable that explains the relationship between two other variables
A variable that is unrelated to two other variables, but is related to a third.
A variable that is uncorrelated with another.
What is the formula for Hedge's g?
g = (Mean1-Mean2)/pooled SD
g = (Population Mean - Sample Mean)/pooled SD
g = (Mean1+Mean2+Mean3+etc)/N
g = (mean1-mean2)/n-1
Which is these is NOT a general effect associated with common factors research?
Alliance Outcome relationship
Therapist and Researcher Allegiance
What does the common factor Therapist and Researcher Allegience refer to?
Whether the therapist and researcher believe the treatment is efficacious.
Skill of the therapist at delivering a specific treatment.
The relationship between the therapist, researcher, and patient.
Skill of therapist at delivering a general treatment.
The Therapist Effects common factor suggests patients should...
seek the best treatment for your condition
seek a therapist who uses an approach you find compatible
make sure their therapist believes the therapy works
make sure the researcher in charge of producing journal articles believes in the therapy's efficacy
Messer and Wampold (2002) recommend...
Limit clinical trials to comparing bonafide therapies
Don't use control groups in clinical trials: two active controls that are bonafide therapies will suffice
Increase emphasis on specific factors in therapy manuals so all bases are covered adequately
Limit clinical trials to comparing new therapies
According to Grencavage and Norcross (1990) what is the most agreed upon common factor?
development of therapeutic alliance
client's positive expectancies
beneficial therapist qualities
In terms of raw frequency, which were the most frequently occuring treatment structures identified as common factors? (Grencavage & Norcross, 1990).
use of techniques/rituals
focus on inner world/exploration of emotional issues
adherence to theory
a healing setting
In terms of raw frequency, what is the most frequently occuring Selected Relationship Elements identified as common factors? (Grencavage & Norcross, 1990)?
development of a therapeutic alliance/relationship
client's belief structures
There are four main “efforts” in the realm of epistemology and the philosophy of science. The first is associated with Plato. He characterised knowledge as:
all possible answers
Correspondence theory, regarding Plato’s notion of truth:
pre-supposes unbiased observation
is about belief accurately depicting reality
pre-supposes unbiased observation + is about belief accuracy depicting reality
Coherence theory, regarding Plato’s notion of truth, was demonstrated by Schlick (a logical positivist) to be lacking in the sense that it is possible:
to construct a perfectly coherent fantasy world, and yet that world is not true
for inconsistencies to co-exist in reality
to construct a perfectly coherent fantasy world, and yet that world is not true + for inconsistencies to co-exist in reality
The problem of infinite regress is associated with which aspect(s) of Plato’s definition of knowledge:
belief and justifaction
The “Gettier problems” identify a shortcoming of Plato’s definition of knowledge, in that:
it is possible to hold a false belief
it is possible to have knowledge without justification
it is possible to have justified true belief without knowledge
Logical positivism was a reaction against:
Logical positivism is associated with the “verifiability principle” which is about:
proving something true or false by experimental manipulation
proving something true from a set of relevant examples
proving something false by identifying at least one exception to the rule
proving something true or false by experience
Popper argued that true knowledge:
is based on consistent results from many methodologically sound replications of an experiment
is in short supply
survives tests of falsification
Popper argued that knowledge is never certain, but has degrees of:
The Popperian view would be that:
confirmation is superior to disconfirmation
confirmation is superior in some contexts, and disconfirmation is superior in
neither confirmation nor disconfirmation is superior to the other
confirmation is inferior to disconfirmation
The dominant justification of the scientist-practitioner model is:
A view of science characterised as the “fuzzy, dynamic, progressive accumulation of
true knowledge” would be labelled:
Detractors of the Popperian view of knowledge include:
Plato and other ancient Greek philosophers
The philosophers of the Enlightenment
Kuhn and the post-modernists
The logical positivists
Kahneman and Tversky concluded from their research about human decision-making
that humans commit more decision-making errors than they realise. Such errors result
poor intelligence and lack of expertise
the misapplication of powerful heuristics
Which of the following is not true?
Humans have a good grasp of probability.
Humans use familiarity rather than probability.
Human emotions can hijack rational decision-making.
Humans often fail to realise when there is missing information.
Which canonical heuristic is associated with faulty generalisations?
Stereotypes are associated with which two canonical heuristics?
availability heuristic and anchoring heuristic
availability heuristic and framing effect
conjunction fallacy and representativeness heuristic
availability heuristic and representativeness heuristic
Losses are more devastating and gains are more gratifying. This statement is
associated with which canonical heuristic?
Which of the following is a criticism of the scientist-practitioner model:
views of science have changed since 1949
there is low recognition of the tacit knowledge of clinicians
practice makes a meagre contribution to psychological science
O’Donohue and Lilienfeld (2007) in their consideration of epistemological and ethical
dimensions of clinical science suggest that:
psychological services should be offered to the public regardless of whether
they can be continually monitored
as clinical experience increases adherence to a strictly scientific clinical
psychology becomes less important
psychological services should not be offered to the public unless they are
offered within a sound quality improvement system
it is appropriate to draw upon professional knowledge based on anecdotal
evidence when there is no applicable scientific knowledge
According to Spring (2007), evidence-based practice designates a process of clinical
decision-making that integrates:
patient preferences and characteristics