The clinic nurse is preparing to discuss the concepts of Kohlberg's theory of moral development with a parent. What motivates good and bad actions for the child at the preconventional level?
Punishment and reward
The maternity nurse is providing instructions to a new mother regarding the psychosocial development of the newborn infant. Using Erikson's psychosocial development theory, the nurse instructs the mother to take which measure?
Allow the newborn infant to signal a need.
Anticipate all the needs of the newborn infant.
Attend to the newborn infant immediately when crying.
Avoid the newborn infant during the first 10 minutes of crying.
The mother of a 4-year-old child calls the clinic nurse and expresses concern because the child has been masturbating. Using Freud's psychosexual stages of development, the nurse should make which response?
"This is a normal behavior at this age."
"Children usually begin this behavior at age 8 years."
"The child is very young to begin this behavior and should be brought to the clinic."
"This is not normal behavior, and the child should be seen by the health care provider."
The nursing instructor asks a nursing student to present a clinical conference to peers regarding Freud's psychosexual stages of development, specifically the anal stage. The student plans the conference, knowing that which characteristic relates to this stage of development?
This stage is associated with toilet training.
This stage is characterized by the gratification of self.
This stage is characterized by a tapering off of conscious biological and sexual urges.
This stage is associated with pleasurable and conflicting feelings about the genital organs.
The nursing instructor asks a nursing student to describe the formal operations stage of Piaget's cognitive developmental theory. The correct response by the nursing student is which statement?
"The child has the ability to think abstractly."
"The child begins to understand the environment."
"The child is able to classify, order, and sort facts."
"The child learns to think in terms of past, present, and future."
The mother of an 8-year-old child tells the clinic nurse that she is concerned about the child because the child seems to be more attentive to friends than anything else. Use Erikson's psychosocial developmental theory, the nurse should make which response?
"You need to be concerned."
"You need to monitor the child's behavior closely."
"At this age, the child is developing his own personality."
"You need to provide more praise to the child to stop this behavior."
The nurse educator is preparing to conduct a teaching session for the nursing staff regarding the theories of growth and development and plans to discuss Kohlberg's theory of moral development. What information should the nurse include in the session? Select all that apply.
Individuals move through all six stages in a sequential fashion.
Moral development progresses in relationship to cognitive development.
A person's ability to make moral judgements develops over a period of time.
The theory provides a framework for understanding how individuals determine a moral code to guide their behavior.
In stage 1 (punishment-obedience orientation), children are expected to reason as mature members of society.
In stage 2 (instrumental-relativist orientation), the child conforms to rules to obtain rewards or have favors returned.