What refers to the tendency of parents, teachers and other social agents to reinforce the child's sex appropriate responses and to punish those behaviors that are not considered sex appropriate?
Which gender is more rigid towards their children in relation to sex appropriate play?
T or F: Mother's science related talk is higher for boys than girls.
Which perspective argues that both nature and nurture contribute to the development of gender-typed behavior (although their relative influences may differ at different points in childhood)?
Nurture exacerbates what is already present from _____.
Girls are better at ____ skills and boys are better at _____ skills.
T or F: language arts are considered masculine.
What view states that gender identity leads to gender-typed behavior?
What view states that self-perceptions (such as gender constancy) comes before gender-typed behavior?
What view combines social learning and cognitive development theories?
According to Freud, how do gender roles develop?
According to Kohlberg, how are gender roles developed?
According to Kohlberg, what 3 things are prerequisites for a child's deliberate cultivation of sex roles?
Children seek a consistent, predictable world- they search for rules to explain how the world works. This is consistent with which theory?
What are simple rules that draw diverse experiences together to give them structure and meaning (aid memory and understanding)?
______ filters categories of masculine and feminine expectation?
Gender _______ are socially informative.
Actions that protect people's rights and welfare are what?
Customs determined solely by social consensus are what?
What does not violate rights, is not socially regulated and are up to the individual?
What are the 5 behaviors that show internalized conscience?
Moral development incorporates _______ of moral values.
What requires behaving in accordance with ethical principles irrespective of authority and who will know?
What are Piaget's 3 stages of Moral Development?
Which one of Piaget's stages states that rules are not understood? At what age does this occur?
Which one of Piaget's stages states that rules come from higher authority and cannot be changed; Children evaluate actions in terms of their outcomes; Punishment is inevitable retribution? At what age does this occur?
Which one of Piaget's stages states that rules are created by people and can be changed by mutual consent; children evaluate action is terms of intentions; punishment fits the crime? At what age does this occur?
What are Kohlberg's 3 levels of Moral Understanding?
Which one of Kohlberg's levels states that moral judgments are based on the consequences of an act?
Which one of Kohlberg's levels states that moral judgements are based on a desire to maintain good interpersonal relations, or to comply with formal rules and customs?
Which one of Kohlberg's levels states that moral judgements are based on individual principles of ethics and justice?
Punishment/obedience and instrumental purpose fall under which level of moral understanding?What stages are they?
Good boy-Good girl (morality of interpersonal cooperation) and social order maintaining fall under which level of moral understanding?What stages are they?
Social contract and universal ethical principle fall under which level of moral understanding?What stages are they?
Are there sex differences in Moral Reasoning?
What involves the acquisition of knowledge about social norms and socially appropriate behavior, as well as the distinction between customs and laws?
Truiel and Damon's level __ states that social regulations are confused with personal desires, like and dislikes; social regulations are context specific and children confuse people's responses to violations of social regulations with their own desires.
Truiel and Damon's level __ states that children's understanding of social regulations is based on their impressions of the way people normally act; children follow social regulations to avoid punishment.
Truiel and Damon's level __ states that children recognize expectation to social regulations (he has the right to play with a doll); the decision to which social regulations are optional v compulsory continues to be based on the consequences of violations; begin to think about individuals; can distinguish between cultural differences (hands v fork)
Truiel and Damon's level __ states that children acquire the insight that regulations are an important part of the social system because they function to maintain social order (there is no law against boys playing with dolls)
At what age is gender segregation less pronounced?
What theory explains the acquisition of gender roles as the control of sex-typical behavior through maturational processes, resulting from genetic inheritance?
What theory explains the acquisition of gender roles as involving internalization of cultural values through social learning?
There is a correlation between high ______ in men and aggression.
What happened when scientists injected pregnant monkey's with testosterone?
T or F: street gangs in Mexico had females every bit as masculine as males.
What appears to over-ride nurture in relation to gender identity?
How have prominent social learning theorists argued that children acquire their gender identities?
How does observational learning contribute to sex-typed behaviors?
The process by which children acquire not only a gender identity but also the motives, values and behaviors considered appropriate in their culture for members of their sex. This is called what?
A value, motive, or a class of behavior that is considered more appropriate for members of one sex than the other. This is called what?
T or F: In a study conducted by Barry, Bacon & Child, they found a marked difference across societies in the attributes considered appropriate for boys vs girls.
Most societies perpetrate sex-role stereotypes, and such stereotypes have consequences for what?
An American study found a significant difference in _____ labeling, depending on whether participants thought they were watching a girl or a boy. What were the findings?
At what age do children acquire a gender identity?
At what age do children understand gender constancy?
Who is more quicker to adopt sex-typed preferences and patterns of behaviors - girls or boys?
When does gender-typed behavior begin to intensify?
When is sex segregation in play apparent?
T or F: boys and girls have similar patterns of play and interactions.
When do stereotypes begin to form?
In middle childhood/adolescence, stereotypes extend to include what 2 things?
What influences gender-role adoption?