a reducing agent is
an oxidising agent is
oxidation states are sometimes called
uncombined elements have oxidation states that =
the oxidation states of group 1 are
group 2 elements have an oxidation state of
Fluorine have an oxidation state of
hydrogen has an oxidation state of
oxygen has an oxidation state of
the oxidation number of Cl is
the sum of all the oxidation states in a compound =
the sum of the oxidation states of a complex ion =
complex ions are
the symbol for sulphate (IV) ions is
the symbol for sulphate(VI) ion is
to check if something is balance, look
what are half cells?
the equation of zinc in sulfate solution
if the metal gains a negative charge
if we measure the potential, it would tell us
how potential difference (V) cannot be measured directly so what do we do?
what is a salt bridge?
why do we have a salt bridge?
draw the setup of a zinc electrode and a copper electrode together
is one electrode is more negative than the other then it tells us that
electrons flow from
the left electrode is always the
we can do half equations at each electrode, to show
if we want to compare the tendency of different metals to release electrons we must have a
describe the standard hydrogen electrode
platinum is used because
the potential of the standard hydrogen electrode is defined as
is the standard hydrogen electrode is connected to another electrode, the measured voltage, called the electromotive force (emf) is...
draw the diagram for the standard hydrogen electrode
electrodes with a negative emf are
changing the conditions, such as concentrations of ions, or temperature of an electrode...
a list of emf values for metal/metal ion standard electrodes is given in a table called
to get the overall emf between two metal you do the calculation
cell representation =
a vertical line in cell representation indicates
a double vertical line in cell representation is
this shows what happens at the two electrodes when they're not connected
Zn2+(aq) + 2e- <--> Zn(s) emf = -0.76v
Cu2+(aq) + 2e- <--> Cu(s) emf = +0.34v
what happens to the half equations when they are connected?
what is the overall equation and state whether it's feasible.
then show reverse of the equation and state if it's feasible
what does NO P.R stand for?
the half-equations in the electrochemical series are always written as
when two half equations are put together, which ones goes in the direction of oxidation
when two half equation are put together which ones goes in the direction of reduction?
the emf of a cell =
the emf of the standard hydrogen electrode =
when measuring the electrode potentials using a standard hydrogen electrode, it is important to do it under
in a standard hydrogen cell, hydrogen gas is bubbled into a
what type of electrode is used in a standard hydrogen electrode
electrons flow through the wire in a cell, from
platinum is used because
how easily a metal oxidises depends
in a cell representation, the reduced species goes
the more reactive metal is the one
the more reactive the non-metal is the one that
when predicting the outcome of reactions, what are the steps?
two types of non-rechargeable batteries are
Non -rechargeable batteries use what type of reaction
Non -rechargeable batteries are used in gadgets that
the negative electrode in a zinc-carbon dry cell is
the positive electrode in the zinc-carbon cell is
the electrolyte in the zinc-carbon cell is
the half-equations for the zinc-carbon cell are
draw the diagram of the zinc-carbon cell
half-equations have non-reversible arrows because
half equations in non-rechargeable batteries can be made reversible under the right conditions but...
another reason why the zinc-carbon electrode cannot be recharged is because
rechargeable batteries are recharged
A type of rechargeable battery is
rechargeable batteries are done by
lead acid batteries are used in
lead acid batteries consist of
each lead acid cells consists of
the positive plate in a lead acid batter is made up of
the negative plate in a lead acid battery is made up of
when discharging in a lead acid battery, which direction does the electrons move
show the equation for the reaction that occurs at the lead plate
show the equation that occurs at the lead-dioxide coated plate
portable batteries are also
there are two types of disposable batteries
which battery is more expensive, zinc-carbon one, or nickel/cadium one?
to recharge the nickel/cadium and the lithium ion batteries, what do we need to do?
why is it possible to recharge these batteries
the pros of a non-chargeable battery are..
the cons of non-rechargeable batteries is...
what is an electrolyte is a
the alternative to burning hydrocarbons for fuel is..
a fuel cell consists of
the half equations for a fuel cell are
the diagram for a fuel cell is
the only emission from a fuel cell is
although hydrogen seems green it isn't