In order to test a hypothesis that the presence of others inhibits a person from intervening in an emergency situation, a fake smoke was introduced in a room where one or more unsuspecting experimental participants thought they were involved in a different experiment. The results showed that people were less likely to report the smoke when they were with others than when they were alone.
a) The results were consistent with the hypothesis, but the hypothesis needs to be tested in other emergency situations as well.
b) The results were consistent with the hypothesis, but there is an alternative explanation of the results
Both a and b.
Neither a nor b.
According to the lecture, social factors are important for psychological processes because experiments have demonstrated that:
a. People behave differently when even a minimal social relationship is present.
b. People feel and behave differently when their social relationship is removed from them.
In a cyberball experiment, a participant is induced to feel he or she belongs in a group by being initially included in a cyber-version of a ball tossing game. When the participant is excluded from the group, he or she reports lower levels of ______ than when not excluded from the group.
d. All of the above
Social exclusion and rejection are said to “hurt.” Which of the following is TRUE about this statement?
Only the anterior cingulate area was shown to be activated.
People cannot regulate the pain of ostracism.
This is a figure of speech, and there is no reason to believe it actually hurts.
None of the above is true.
According to the textbook, bystander intervention is a result of a decision making process involving five steps. Which of the following is FALSE?
Becoming aware of someone’s need for help is an important step in this decision making process.
If a bystander does not experience arousal, he/she will not help.
Working out the rewards is an important factor, but working out the cost is not.
This model can explain why bystanders often fail to provide help.
When people are involved in a systematic processing of information, they need:
a. Enough cognitive resources to process the information systematically
b. Enough motivation to process the information systematically
c. Only a or b
d. Both a and b
Which of the following is TRUE about people’s judgments about personalities and abilities based on photos of others’ faces.
Their judgments after 100 ms are often as accurate as their considered judgments.
Judgments about the personality of people after viewing their pictures for one second were very different from snap judgments after viewing the same pictures for 100 ms.
A political candidate who is evaluated to be more competent is more likely to win in a US election.
All of the other answers are true.
Which of the following is TRUE about people’s impressions about a target person?
Impressions are formed on the basis of the cues associated with the target person.
People rarely use the person’s group membership in forming impressions.
People often try not to form impressions about other people.
All of the other answers are true.
After reading about an attorney who left an injured person in the hospital and went to the court, a participant in Miller’s study in the USA and India said, “It was his duty to be in court for the client he was representing.” Which of the following is TRUE?
It is one of the typical US responses.
It is one of the typical Indian responses.
It tends to focus on the actor without considering the context of his action.
None of the above is TRUE.
Which of the following is TRUE about a correspondence bias (or fundamental attribution error)?
It is a bias in people’s judgments about other’s intelligence.
It is a universal human bias based on the limitation of human rationality.
People from some cultural backgrounds show a greater extent of this bias than others.
It is unaffected by people’s stereotypes.
Heider (1958) argued that people are like naïve scientists who try to make sense of an observable behaviour by inferring its cause. Beliefs about what caused a behaviour are called attributions. Internal attributions are:
Beliefs that something inside the person who performed the behaviour has caused the behaviour.
Beliefs that something inherent in the situation where the behaviour was performed has caused the behaviour.
Which of the following is FALSE about Kelley’s co-variation theory of attribution?
The co-variation principle states that, “an effect is attributed to a condition that is present when the effect is present, and absent when the effect is absent.”
Distinctiveness indicates the extent to which others in the same situation behave in the same way.
Consistency indicates the extent to which the person usually behaves in the way he/she is currently behaving.
Low consensus, high consistency, and low distinctiveness results in dispositional attribution.
Gilbert, Pelham, and Krull (1988) asked people to watch a videotape of a woman speaking about something anxiously. Although they could not hear what the woman was talking about, they were told that the topic of her speech was either anxiety provoking or fairly neutral. Half of the participants just watched the video, but the other half did so while remembering a list of topics (high cognitive load). Which of the following is FALSE about this study?
People under high cognitive load rated the woman as anxious (i.e., dispositional attribution) regardless of the purported topic of her speech.
People without cognitive load rated the woman as anxious only when she was said to be talking about a neutral topic.
Their finding supported the idea that a dispositional attribution is automatic.
Their finding supported the idea that a correction process is automatic.
Which of the following is TRUE about impression formation?
According to Solomon Asch, people’s impressions about a person are structured and integrated, and not a simple list of attributes.
Information encountered earlier tends to have stronger effects on person impressions than information encountered later.
When students were given false information about a lecturer’s warmth and coldness before the lecture, their impressions were rather different even if they sat through the same lecture.
All of the other answers are TRUE.
Which of the following is TRUE?
People’s impressions about a target person can generate the target person’s behaviour that is consistent with those impressions.
Teachers’ expectations about their students cannot influence the students’ performance and achievement.
People’s impressions about a target person rarely correspond with the target person’s personality.
All of the above are TRUE.
Impression cycles refer to:
People’s tendency to make circular arguments about their impressions about others.
People’s circle of friends within which they share impressions about other people.
The cycles in which people’s impressions change over time.
The process by which a target person’s behaviour can give rise to an observer’s impression about the target person, which can then influence the target person’s behaviour, and so on, so that it can form a self-perpetuating loop.
According to William James:
Me and I are physically different aspects of oneself.
Physical self is part of Me.
Me is a purely physical entity and does not have any social origin.
All of the other answers are TRUE.
Which of the following is FALSE about the concept of looking glass self?
It was developed by Charles Horton Cooley.
It implies that humans would not have a sense of oneself unless we grow up with other humans.
It implies that one’s self-presentation (i.e., activity to present oneself as having a certain characteristic) can affect one’s sense and perception of oneself when one believes that the self-presentation is believed by others.
It asserts the importance of mirrors in the formation of the social side of self-concept.
Which of the following is TRUE about self-awareness and self-recognition?
Human babies have the ability to be aware of oneself when they are born.
The ability to recognise the image of oneself in a mirror as a reflection of oneself (mirror self-recognition) develops in humans by about 2 years of age.
The ability for mirror self-recognition has been observed only among primates in captivity and humans.
None of the other answers are true.
Which of the following is FALSE about culture and self?
The notion of looking glass self suggests that self-concepts should differ between societies where people have different types of social interaction patterns.
Australians are more likely to have independent self-construal than Americans.
People with independent self-construal are more likely to try to distinguish themselves from others in a positive light.
East Asians with greater exposure to Western cultures tend to report higher levels of self-esteem.
Which of the following is TRUE?
The self is the deep underlying true sense of identity that is unlikely to be shaped by society.
The sense of one’s self is concerned with personal identity.
Social identity is a superficial aspect of one’s self-consciousness.
All of the above are false.
Which of the following is THE BEST EXAMPLE of what social psychologists call attitudes?
My politics are Marxist.
I don’t like custard.
I am angry.
I think the world is flat.
According to the theory of reasoned action, which of the following BEST predicts people’s behaviour to go to a Rock concert in the city on this Saturday?
attitudes toward Rock music
attitudes toward the Rock band playing at the concert on this Saturday
attitudes toward going to the concert in the city on this Saturday
attitudes toward going to the concert in the city on this Saturday by public transport
Which of the following is TRUE about attitude-behaviour consistency?
Attitudes tend to predict consistent behaviour when attitudes are accessible.
Attitude accessibility affects behaviour when people are using superficial processes.
Intention predicts behaviour when people are using systematic processes.
All of the above are true.
According to the theories of reasoned action and planned behaviour, which of the following is FALSE?
Both theories suggest that behaviour is influenced by people’s intention to perform the behaviour.
Both theories suggest that intention is influenced by attitudes and subjective norm.
Both theories suggest that attitudes are determined by behavioural beliefs about the consequences of the behaviour (and their evaluations).
Theory of reasoned action includes perceived behavioural control as its important component whereas the theory of planned behaviour does not.
When John says, “I dislike X because it makes me feel bad about myself,” which of the following is TRUE?
This is an example of a social identity.
John’s attitude toward X is serving a self-esteem maintenance function.
This is a structural feature of John’s attitudes.
John is clearly a utilitarian who is unconcerned about social norms.
Which of the following is TRUE about attitude change?
When people are forced to perform a behaviour non-voluntarily, their attitudes are likely to change.
When people are induced to perform a behaviour voluntarily in the absence of their prior attitudes, attitudes are unlikely to form, and they would go without attitudes.
Some form of emotional engagement is necessary for attitudes to change.
Which of the following is TRUE about cognitive dissonance theory?
Cognitive dissonance is a negative state, which motivates us to reduce it.
My belief that smoking causes cancer and my knowledge of my behaviour that I smoke one packet of cigarettes a day are consonant with each other.
Cognitive dissonance is less likely to be felt in modern societies because modern music uses discords more.
All strategies to reduce cognitive dissonance are irrational.
La Piere’s famous study about attitudes and behaviour towards Chinese people (he observed people’s behaviour in hotels, motor camps, and so on)
showed how people go about concocting reasons for their actions.
was a landmark study because it measured behavioural intentions.
was a poorly designed study because La Piere was not Chinese.
was a good example of attitude failing to predict a specific behaviour.
An attitude is accessible when it readily comes to mind. Which of the following conditions would produce accessible attitudes?
Attitudes are formed on the basis of direct experience with the attitude object.
Attitudes are learned when a person is very young.
Attitudes are suppressed and kept unconscious.
None of the above.
According to the lecture, which of the following is TRUE about attitude-behaviour relationships?
When people have the ability to think carefully about how to behave and are motivated to think carefully, accessible attitudes should predict a behaviour.
Attitudes rarely predict behaviour and therefore generally regarded as a useless concept in social psychology.
Attitudes and behaviour influence each other some of the time, and form a positive feedback loop.
Attitudes and behaviour are separate and parallel processes, which do not influence each other.
In individual-level strategies for attitude change, a person whose attitudes you wish to influence is induced to behave in a way that is congruent with the attitude you wish him or her to have. Which of the following is TRUE about these strategies?
Attitudes are likely to change when the behaviour is forced, and is performed involuntarily.
Attitudes may change when the existing attitudes are already congruent with the behaviour and the behaviour is performed voluntarily.
Attitudes are unlikely to change if the induced behaviour is incongruent with the existing attitudes.
None of the above is TRUE
Festinger and Carlsmith conducted an empirical test of cognitive dissonance theory. After establishing a negative attitude to a boring experiment, they induced their participants to perform a counter-attitudinal behaviour voluntarily. For this purpose, the participants were offered a large amount of reward ($20) or a small amount of reward ($1). Which of the following is TRUE about this experiment?
Cognitive dissonance should not occur under either condition.
Cognitive dissonance should be greater in the $20 condition than in the $1 condition.
A greater attitude change was observed in the $1 condition than in the $20 condition.
An attitude change occurred when the participants performed the counter-attitudinal behaviour involuntarily.
According to the lecture, which of the following is true about the relationship between attitudes and behaviour?
Attitudes and behaviour always influence each other.
Attitudes and behaviour never influence each other.
Attitudes and behaviour influence each other under some circumstances.
None of the above is TRUE.
According to the elaboration likelihood model of persuasion, when people change attitudes due to strong arguments, compared to when they change attitudes because an attractive person sent them the persuasive message, the resultant attitudes:
are more enduring.
are more resistant to change.
show stronger attitude-behaviour relationships.
The elaboration likelihood model suggests that:
when people are busy doing other things, they tend to process TV commercials using their central route to persuasion.
when people are going through a peripheral route to persuasion, resultant attitudes are likely to be more enduring and more likely to predict their behaviour than when they are going through a central route.
when people have lots of cognitive resources, but unwilling to process information deeply, they tend to be persuaded by peripheral cues such as source attractiveness.
When David says, “I don’t trust what Donald says because he might be motivated to mislead me,” and decides to disregard Donald’s persuasive message, which of the following is TRUE?
David is citing a reporting bias.
David is referring to a knowledge bias.
David is revealing his unconscious bias.
David is showing a fundamental attribution error.
A norm that can be known to exist when it is violated is:
a taken-for-granted background norm.
an injunctive norm.
a descriptive norm.
a shared frame of reference.
According to the lecture, which of the following is TRUE about the definition of a group?
Any collection of two or more individuals is a group.
Group members should share a common definition about what their group is.
Group members do not need to behave in accordance with their definition of the group.
Which of the following functions is MOST likely to be served by large-scale groups defined in terms of social categories such as nations?
task performance function
social identity function
According to the social brain hypothesis (e.g., Dunbar), which of the following is FALSE?
Relative size of an individual person’s neo-cortex is associated with how sociable he or she is.
Among primates, a species’ average relative neo-cortex size is associated with average size of groups in which the species tends to live.
The “natural” human group size is estimated to be approximately 150.
Group living acted as a selective pressure for larger relative neo-cortex size.
Which of the following is TRUE about group cohesiveness?
A group tends to be cohesive when its members like each other.
A group tends to be cohesive when its members’ goals are aligned with the group goals.
When a group is highly cohesive, its members tend to adhere to its norms.
Which of the following is TRUE about social networks?
Social networks are information technologies like Facebook and Twitter.
Highly centralised networks mean that everyone occupies a central position.
Centralization and central positions mean the same thing.
All of the above are FALSE.
According to Steiner’s model of group performance, which of the following is FALSE?
Group performance can never exceed the potential set by group members.
Group may perform worse than its potential due to coordination losses.
There is an element of social loafing in motivation losses in group settings.
A group can create synergies among its members, and perform better than the best of its members.
If someone said, “I don’t want to do what she told me, but I have to,” which type of social influence would it be? Choose the BEST response.
majority social influence
minority social influence
normative social influence
informational social influence
Which of the following is FALSE about the Asch-type conformity situation?
University students showed a lower level of conformity than non-students.
Japanese students showed a higher conformity rate when the pressure came from other students in the same sports club.
Korean advertisements emphasize conformity more than American advertisements.
The conformity rate is higher in individualist cultures than in collectivist cultures.
Which of the following is FALSE about Asch’s conformity studies?
A naïve participant was asked to make a judgment about line lengths after some confederates made judgments in public.
Approximately 25% of the participants never conformed.
The rate of conformity kept rising as the number of confederates who made wrong judgments increased up to six.
Even when a number of confederates gave an erroneous judgment, if there was one person who gave the right judgment, this reduced the rate of conformity.
According to Moscovici, in order to influence others, an opinion minority should use a tactic that differs from those used by an opinion majority.
The blue-green experiment showed that an opinion minority that expressed their opinion consistently could influence a majority’s opinion.
Consistent minorities can affect privately held opinions especially when they are indirectly related to the minority opinions.
According to Moreland and Levine, most groups undergo dynamic changes as some people join the group and others leave it. Which of the following is FALSE about this process?
Their model of group dynamics is applicable to all groups.
The investigation phase is usually followed by the socialization phase.
In the maintenance phase, members engage in role negotiation.
Those group members who were led to believe that the other members of the group have been meeting before (i.e., experimental participants) increased their commitment to the group.
Group polarisation refers to groups’ tendency to make a more risky decision.
When confronted by an outgroup view that is riskier, an ingroup tends to become more risky.
Group polarisation may occur in part because group members change their opinions in line with other group members’ opinions.
People are more likely to discuss information that is unshared with others in group discussions.
Which of the following is FALSE about groupthink?
It is a mode of thinking in which the desire to reach unanimous agreement overrides the motivation to adopt proper rational decision-making procedures.
There is no evidence that political considerations play a role in faulty decision making.
There is evidence that a strong leader and a high level of conformity tend to be present when groups exhibit group think.
Even successful groups showed some indicators of groupthink.
Which of the following statements is TRUE about transactional and transformational leaderships?
Transactional leadership is not effective.
Transactional leadership is based on individualized consideration and contingent reward.
Transactional leadership involves providing one’s followers with inspiration, and persuading them to rise above their own self-interests to achieve the leader’s vision.
Which of the following is TRUE about Milgram’s experiments about electric shocks?
Approximately 30% of the participants administered the maximum shock (450 volts) to a learner.
Reducing the level of legitimacy of the authority can reduce the level of obedience.
Participants obeyed even more when the authority was not physically present.
A recent study has shown a significant reduction in obedience since Milgram’s original experiment.
Which of the following is FALSE about collective behaviour?
Le Bon argued that a person in a crowd is “a creature acting by instinct.”
Deindividuation is a weaker sense of, or a decreased focus on, personal identity.
Research suggests that deindividuation consistently results in aggression.
Social identity theory suggests that deindividuation strengthens group members’ tendency to adhere to their group’s situational norms.
Which of the following is TRUE about the Robbers Cave Experiment?
The boys who participated in the experiment had no psychological problems before they participated in the experiment.
Boys were more likely to choose their ingroup members as friends than outgroup members.
Cooperation between the groups to work towards a goal that cannot be achieved by each group alone reduced intergroup conflict.
Which of the following is TRUE about prejudice and discrimination?
Allport argued that extermination is the most extreme form of discrimination.
Aversive racism is attitudes toward members of a racial group that incorporate both egalitarian social values and negative emotions, causing one to avoid interaction with members of the group.
People who score high on rightwing authoritarianism tend to show stronger prejudice against outgroups.
When people were categorised into two groups on the basis of some trivial criterion (e.g., preference of abstract paining) in a minimal group paradigm:
they gave more resources to their ingroup members than outgroup members.
they spontaneously derogated their outgroup.
they felt a stronger sense of belonging, control, and self-esteem.
they spontaneously came up with their own group names.
Which of the following is FALSE?
When their Australian social identity was salient, Indigenous Australians were more likely to endorse individualist values than when their Aboriginal social identity was salient.
Indigenous Australians have higher mortality rates than non-Indigenous Australians.
Indigenous Australians report that the level of racist incidents decreased in the 1990s.
High levels of self-reported discrimination have been found to be related to high levels of mental illness.
Which of the following is TRUE:
Berkman and Syme found that those who were more integrated in society (i.e., having a more diverse social network) have lower mortality rates.
People who are more socially integrated tend to be more susceptible to cold because they have more interpersonal contact.
Higher levels of emotional social support are often psychological burden for people, and do not buffer against negative effects of stress.
Which of the following is FALSE about the intergroup contact hypothesis?
Intergroup contact always reduces stereotypes and prejudice.
For intergroup contact to reduce stereotypes and prejudice, the situation in which the groups contact each other should emphasize equal status.
Intergroup contact needs to be sufficiently frequent and long lasting for it to be effective.
The evidence for the effectiveness of real life intergroup contact in the United States in the 1980s has been somewhat mixed.
Which of the following is TRUE about strategies to reduce stereotypes and prejudice?
The decategorisation strategy encourages people to personalise a member of an outgroup.
The salient categorisation strategy encourages people to generalise positive experiences with a typical member of a negatively stereotyped outgroup.
The recategorisation strategy encourages people to categorise their ingroup and outgroup into a more inclusive social category.
All of the above are TRUE and these strategies have been found to reduce prejudice and stereotypes to some extent under some circumstances; however, there are some potential problems associated with each of them.
When people perceive racial discrimination, they tend to have poorer mental health.
There is no evidence for the idea that when people perceive racial discrimination, they tend to have poorer physical health.
Both a and b are TRUE.
Neither a nor b is TRUE.