Evidence with individual characteristics can lead to a determination of common origin (single source). Which type of evidence CANNOT yield such results?
Random striations on tools
Wear patterns on tires
The likelihood of finding class physical evidence is ____________ the likelihood of finding physical evidence with individual characteristics.
The same as
Physical evidence is considered to have _______ as that of eyewitness (testimonial) evidence.
The same value
The corroborative use of physical evidence means that it can be used to:
Provide a lead to give the investigation direction
Establish a definitive identity
Support other investigative findings
Rule out a particular suspect
Physical evidence can be used to exonerate or exclude a person from suspicion if:
It is collected in accordance with the Fourth Amendment
The standard reference sample (control) from the person does not share characteristics with evidence at the crime scene
It does not have a well-documented chain of custody
Evidence taken from suspect is obtained voluntarily
Forensic databases are maintained for all of the following EXCEPT
The Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) became fully operational in what year?
A component of the National Integrated Ballistics Information Network is called:
a and b
When a forensic analyst determines the chemical composition of preparations that may contain illicit drugs such as heroin, cocaine, or barbiturates, this is an example of:
The examination of a paint chip found on a hit-and-run victim’s garment side-by-side with paint removed from a vehicle suspected of being involved in the incident is an example of:
Evidence having class characteristics can:
Exonerate an innocent suspect
Link a person to a crime with a high degree of certainty
Always be fitted together in a the manner of a jigsaw puzzle
Have no evidential value
If the laboratory can piece broken glass from a window or headlight together, then the evidence has _______ characteristics.
A comparison analysis subjects a suspect specimen and a control specimen to the same tests and examinations for the ultimate purpose of determining
Whether or not they have a common origin
If they are identical in chemical composition
If the same person handled them
If they are alike in molecular structure
Determining that an explosive mixture contains dynamite is an example of the process of:
The computerized database used to store DNA information is:
To calculate the overall frequency of occurrence of a blood type in a population, the _____ can be applied by using a series of blood factors that occur independently of each other.
Locard's exchange principle
The value of class physical evidence lies in its ability to:
State with certainty the identify of the perpetrator
Corroborate events with data in a manner nearly without bias
Determine the probability of the occurrence of an event
Determine the quality of forensic analyses carried out on the evidence
Which of the following is a national fingerprint and criminal history system maintained by the FBI and launched in 1999?
Paint chips, random glass fragments, and synthetic fibers all exhibit:
The database that contains chemical and color information pertaining to original automotive paints is the:
The database that includes more than 300 manufacturers of shoes with more than 8,000 different sole patterns is the:
Which source of CODIS contains DNA profiles from unsolved crime scene evidence?
The PDQ is maintained by the:
National DNA Database
The "jigsaw fit" of known and questioned fragments is important for court presentation primarily because:
It is quick way of demonstrating how the object broke
Courts and juries are too nonscientific to understand it any other way
Instrumental analysis is too complicated to explain to nontechnical juries
This method will definitely demonstrate common origin when a match is made
Who ultimately determines the significance of physical evidence in a trial?
The Supreme Court
Multiplying together the frequencies of independently occurring factors is called the:
A computerized archive of information relating to a specific type of physical evidence is a(n):