A 63 year old woman develops breast cancer. Which of the following is the most likely manner in which the cancer will become noticeable
she is anemic
she develops an opportunistic infection
she develops a cough with bloody sputum production
she has pain with breathing
she feels a lump during her monthly breast self-examination
Which of the following has NOT been implicated in causing cancer
exposure to high-voltage power lines
viral carcinogens, such as HPV
exposure to ultraviolet radiation (sunlight)
chemicals in foods, such as aflatoxin
Which of the following is not an example of physiologic hyperplasia?
Breast development in adolescent females
Breast enlargement in males
A well-conditioned athlete’s enlarged heart
Uterine size increase during pregnancy
The first step a cell must undergo to acquire autonomous growth potential is called:
Specialized copies of DNA that code for growth factors contributory to neoplasia are called:
Tumor suppressor genes
Chemotherapy is generally most effective with tumors composed fo rapidly dividing cells.
The most aggressive growths will appear this way under microscopic examination
Examples of chemical carcinogens include all of the following except:
The most common cancer in women is _a. __________ cancer, but more women die of _b._______________ cancer.
a. lung b. breast
a. breast b. lungs
a. cervix b. breast
a. lungs. b. cervix
An agent that causes cancer is
A 53 year old woman undergoes a breast biopsy. The pathology report states that some of the breast ducts demonstrate epithelial hyperplasia. Based on your understanding of hyperplasia, what do you think is the most appropriate advice to give this woman?
She should have mammograms at more frequent intervals.
She should return in 1-2 years for her regular screening mammogram
She should undergo brain imaging because she might have a pituitary adenoma.
She should have a pregnancy test.
She should have a mastectomy to remove all premalignant tissue.
A neoplasm that will likely not kill the individual that harbors it
A neoplasm that has the potential to spread widely and cause death
The direct extension of neoplastic cells into surrounding tissue without regard to tissue boundaries
Metaplasia is the replacement of one tissue type by another
Which of the following contribute to accurate staging of a cancer
A. Knowing the size of the tumor and the extent to which it has invaded local tissues
B. Knowing whether there are metastases to regional lymph nodes
Knowing whether there are metastases to distant organs.
Knowing the size of distant organ metastases.
Which of the following names suggests a benign neoplasm when, in fact, it is malignant?
In the context of neoplasia, “stage” refers to:
The size of the tumor.
The amount of functional disability the tumor has caused.
The degree of atypia of malignant cells.
The extent of spread of a cancer through the body.
Carcinoma is a malignant neoplasm of mesenchymal tissues
Hormonal therapy plays a significant role in the regression of breast and prostate cancer.