Which of the following shows the most likely sequence of events during the Agricultural Revolution?
Animal and crop domestication--> Larger populations--> Founding of permanent settlements
Large populations--> Establishment of the first cities--> Growth of trade networks
Permanent settlements--> Improvements in stone technology--> New methods of agriculture
Animal and crop domestication--> Permanent settlements--> Emergence of the earliest monarchies
The most extensive farming villages and towns were located in
the Middle East and Southwest Asia
the steppes of Asia
In the Neolithic Age, what was/were the primary responsibility(ies) for a woman living in a farming village?
remaining in a home to care for children and perform domestic activities
going to the market to trade the family's surplus farm goods
praying in the village's sacred center for a good harvest
fishing and making stone tools
The household shrines and female statuettes excavated from Catal Huyuk, a Neolithic farming village, reflected
the growing role of religion in village life
the symbolic importance of women in Neolithic societies
the material wealth of some villagers
the simplistic art styles of the Neolithic people
The first steps toward an urban society in the Near East included
I. defeated settlements
II. extensive trade networks
III. dominated religious and political institutions
II. and III. only
I., II., and III.
Wheat and barley were cereal grains initially harvested in which part of the world?
the New World
Which of the following would you NOT expect to find at a Neolithic village site?
pestles, mortars, and grindstones
flint blades and microliths
iron hooks and arrows
shells and semiprecious stones for jewelry
All of the following are considered to be common elements of complex societies EXCEPT
an organized government bureaucracy
some kind of military force/institution
a uniform system of artistic styles, weights and measures
locations near a major ocean
During the Agriculture Revolution, what types of stone tools were mainly produced?
hooks and spears for fishing
sickles and hoes for farming
spears and arrows for hunting
elaborate obsidian blades for religious rituals
What demographic effect did the food surpluses have on the early agricultural societies?
Artisans had time to practice craft specialization
A rigid social structure with farmers on top evolved
People began hunting animals for leisure
People abandoned other trades to become farmers
All of the following were effects of the Agricultural Revolution EXECPT
a shift toward sedentary lifestyles
a significant population increase
the end of the division of labor common among hunter-gatherer societies
the first evidence of craft specialization
As organized communities increasingly began to store food and accumulate material goods,
villagers began to engage in trade
the earliest writing system developed
villagers elected an official to oversee distribution of goods
the institution of slavery was implemented
How did housing structures change over time during the Agricultural Revolution?
They became larger and had a more permanent construction to accommodate bigger families
Later structures were made out of limestone brick
Later structures had oval-shaped foundations to symbolize agricultural deities
Houses were only built near major rivers and coastal areas
All of the following were health consequences of the agricultural lifestyle EXCEPT
the spread of contagious diseases as a result of living in crowded villages
an increase in the average lifespan
the spread of diseases transmissible by livestock
the spread of parasitic diseases
One result of the economic specialization that occurred was
a breakdown of interregional trade networks
rapid social stratification and the creation of elite classes of rulers
a rapid increase in population
property was held by all members of communities
How did the agricultural lifestyle impact villagers' health?
Disease rates were dramatically reduced since they had a vigorous lifestyle
People often suffered from nutritional-deficiency diseases since their diets were so unvaried
Children had much longer lifespans than their parents because of more sanitary practices
More children survived into adulthood because of the food surpluses
What characteristic of the region between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers made it ideal for the growth of civilization?
Its soil was enlarged and enriched by river silt deposits
It had abundant forests for timber and quarries for minerals
There were numerous lakes and waterholes for irrigation
The climate was ideal for the cultivation of tubers and root crops
Which of the following was necessary for the expansion of agriculture in the Fertile Crescent?
large-scale irrigation projects
constant flooding's from the Tigris and Euphrates throughout the year
importation of seeds and cattle from Egypt
the existence of a well-defined bureaucracy
One consequence of the growing power of the Mesopotamian cities was
they began to exercise political and economic control over the surrounding countryside
the division of labor became the most prominent feature in everyday life
the construction of roads linking the cities to each other
the dependence on agriculture subsided
All of the following were features of the Mesopotamian civilization EXCEPT
a system of writing
a monotheistic religion
a codified system of laws
Which of the following is correct about the Sumerian cities?
Kings, priests, and nobles owned much of the land
The king's palace was the most prominent building
Writing was inscribed on temple walls for historical records
They each had multiple temples to honor local deities
In ancient Mesopotamian society, what was the ziggurat?
The code of laws that was believed to govern the Universe
The system of writing using a wedge-shaped stylus and clay tablets
A massive stepped tower upon which a temple was built
A rectangular formation of tightly massed infantry soldiers
What does the prominence of the ziggurat suggest about the Sumerians?
Religion was integral to the economic, political, and social aspects of daily life
The Sumerians had the most sophisticated military force in the ancient world
The Mesopotamian civilization was the first to emphasize literacy and education
Rulers were given divine status in the city
The Sumerian economy was primarily
agricultural, although commerce and manufacturing developed as well
based on long-distance trade with eastern Mediterranean traders
controlled by the priests and priestesses of the city-states
dependent on a slave trade with Asia Minor
In ancient Mesopotamian, the code of Hammurabi was important for which of the following?
recognizing social classes and establishing laws pertaining to daily life
showing how the city-state ruler was given divine status
keeping historical records about the ruler's reign
serving as a textbook in Sumerian schools
What does the Code of Hammurabi reveal about Sumerian society?
It relied heavily on its extensive trade networks
It emphasized a strict system of justice
It was strongly militaristic
A highly-specified division of labor was widely practiced
"The bringer of food, rich in provisions, creator of all good, lord of majesty, sweet of fragrance." -Ancient Egyptian Hymn
The hymn above, is referring to which of the following?
The Nile River
The Tigris and Euphrates Rivers
The Sinai Peninsula
What was the "miracle" of the Nile for the ancient Egyptians?
Its gentle current allowed for the passage of boats
Its temperature and salinity was ideal for fish
Its annual flooding's made the surrounding land fertile
Its shallow depths made it easy to cross
Like Sumer, Harappa, and Egypt, the civilizations of ancient China began as
a collection of autonomous villages in an area of mild climate, fertile soil, and natural waterways
a few large city-states that were governed by landowning elite
havens for pastoral peoples
a collection of villages that relied on each other for natural resources
A study of the Indus, Nile, Tigris-Euphrates, and Yellow Rivers would be most important in understanding
how early religious were connected to the natural world
the role of geography in the development of early civilizations
the different kinds of products exported by the early civilizations
the evolution of social hierarchies in the first civilizations
The earliest civilizations in South Asia developed around which two great cities?
Susa and Persepolis
Nineveh and Sardis
Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro
Memphis and Nineveh
In which of the following ways, did Harappan civilization resemble that of Mesopotamia and Egypt?
it had a monotheistic religion
it had a centralized state with extensive town planning
priests emerged as the most powerful rulers in the cities
it spread to many of the surrounding areas
What did the Zhou dynasty do to administer all of its territories?
allow conquered lands to have their own local rulers
establish capitals in both the eastern and western territories
develop a uniform code of laws
permit no more than three official languages in the territory
As under the Shang dynasty, which class of society played a prominent role in Zhou government?
members of the hereditary aristocracy
military leaders in the Mandate of Heaven
What was one of the most important items of trade in ancient China?
volcanic obsidian glass
gold and silver
What effect did the development of trade routes and manufacturing have on the Zhou economy?
currency first began to be used
wealthy merchants had attained more power
agriculture became the second-most important economic activity
many peasants abandoned farms to get artisans jobs in urban centers
Which of the following is correct about Han trading patterns?
Merchants used waterways in addition to land-based routes
Precious stones, metal, and slaves were the most commonly traded items
Han merchants only traded with the peoples of Indo-China and Malaya
Only land-based routes such as the Silk Road were used for trade
The Zhou dynasty was renowned for
its advances in agriculture including use of natural fertilizer, the collar harness, and iron plowshares
its advances in civil engineering such as the Great Wall
the earliest use of gun powder
its astronomical discoveries and records
Which of the following descriptions most appropriately applies to both the early Aryans and the Mongols?
I. Their territories were characterized by small villages lacking monumental architecture
II. There was frequent squabbling for power among the tribal groups
III. They had a highly militaristic society that valued the warrior class
I. and II. only