An evolutionary explanation describes why a structure or behaviour evolved
An ontogenetic explanation is one that describes the development of a structure
The view of the brain from below is called the _____ view
An autosomal gene is a gene:
That shows no evidence of crossing over
On the X chromosome
On the Y chromosome
On any chromosome other than the X or Y chromosome
Sex-limited genes are found on:
X chromosomes only
Y chromosomes only
X and Y chromosomes
If a group of individuals shares a highly similar environment, what effect does this have on the heritability estimate of a characteristic?
It is determined by the power of the environmental factors
Heritability will be low
Heritability will be high
Heritability estimates will be unaffected
Individuals affected with PKU need to avoid
Foods high in phenylalanine
Foods high in vitamin K
Why do children with PKU become mentally retarded?
Their immune system do not fight off brain infections
Dendrites and synapses fail to form in associative areas of the cortex
Unmetabolised amino acids accumulate and affect the brain
Essential axons lack myelin sheaths
Which of the following BEST describes the concept of evolution?
"Always look for ways to improve"
"Survival of the fittest"
"Reproduction of the fittest"
"If you don't use it, you lose it"
The theory of evolution through the inheritance of acquired characteristics is known as:
An evolutionary psychologist would likely be most interested in studying:
Neurotransmitters in primates
Altruistic behaviours of meerkats
Cardiovascular function across species
Anatomy of the rat brain
Why is a genetic explanation for altruism problematic?
No behaviour has been linked to any genes
Only non-human animals exhibit altruistic behaviours
Altruistic behaviours rarely benefit the individual performing them
Altruism is more common among the young than among adults
If a person believes that hormones released at different stages of the menstrual cycle affects a person's mood, then it would be considered a(n) ________ explanation.
An _____ explanation describes how a structure or behaviour develops, including the influence of genes, nutrition, experiences, and their interactions
A problem facing dualism is:
Explaining the relationship between mind and spirit
Explaining how neural activity produces mental activity
Explaining how a non-physical mind can influence a physical brain
Explaining why the mind has non-physical properties
If you believe the mind and brain to be separate, but somehow interact with each other, you would be considered a:
Mentalism refers to:
The view that only the mind really exists and that they physical world could not exist unless some mind were aware of it.
The view that everything that exists is material, or physical
The view that mental processes and certain kinds of brain processes are the same thing described in different terms
The belief that the mind and body are different kinds of substance that exist independently.
Which of the following positions would most likely be considered the opposite of materialism?
Chromosomes consist of large, double-stranded molecules of:
An exact copy of DNA
A complementary copy of one strand of a DNA molecule
The combination of many proteins
The product of digesting DNA
Suppose 'A' is a dominant gene and 'a' is a recessive gene. One parent has genes Aa and the other parent has genes aa. What genes will the children probably have?
All will be AA
All will be aa
3/4 will be Aa; 1/4 will be aa
1/2 will be Aa; 1/2 will be aa
Suppose both the father and mother are 'heterozygous' for the gene that controls the ability to curl the tongue lengthwise, and this gene is dominant. What can we predict about their children?
All will be heterozygous for the ability to curl
All will be homozygous for the ability to curl
All will be heterozygous for the inability to curl
They may be homozygous or heterozygous for the ability to curl, or homozygous for the inability to curl
Almost all humans have 23 pairs of which of the following?
In carrying out a particular visual task, what advice would help a patient with spatial neglect?
Tell the person to look to the right
Tell them to keep their hands from crossing over each other
Tell them to close one eye and complete the task monocularly
Tell the person to look to the left
Spatial neglect is generally associated with damage to the:
Determinists believe that:
Free will does not exist
The mind is entirely independent of the brain
The mind controls the body
The complexity of the brain has been exaggerated
Which of the following concepts is not associated with a type of dualism?
Mind is an epiphenomenon
The identity position
Mind and brain closely interact
Mind and brain are separate and do not always interact
The proposition that the mind is a new, emerging product of the brain is consisted with:
Mental events can be described as epiphenomena if they:
Are identical to brain events
Do not affect brain events
All of the above warrant use of the term "epiphenomenon"
The results of the Benjamin Libet demonstration suggest which of the following sequences of events is correct?
Brain activity first; the experience of free-will second
The experience of free will first; brain activity second
Brain activity and the experience of free-will together at the same time
None of the above sequences is in the correct order according to Libet's demonstration
Which of the following is a statement typical of evolutionary psychology?
"Psychological depression may be adaptive to certain individuals, particularly for individuals of low social rank"
"Psychological depression may be advantageous under certain circumstances, particularly in dangerous and/or competitive environments"
"Given the persistence and high prevalence of psychological depression to this day, it is unlikely that depression is a disease state in the strict sense of the term"
All of the above statements are valid examples of evolutionary psychology
_____ is an attentional deficit that is commonly associated with _____ brain damage.
Neglect; left parietal
Neglect; right parietal
Inattentional blindness; left parietal
Inattentional blindness; right parietal
The tendency to see something as moving back and forth between two positions when in fact it is alternately blinking on and off in those positions is called:
A brief visual stimulus after another brief stimulus that leads to failure to remember the first, is called:
When perception alternates between two patterns, viewed as separate images by each eye. Because the brain cannot perceive two things in the same location.
When something complex changes slowly, or changes while blinking, it will probably go unnoticed unless attentions was given to the particular item that changes
An unintentional reaction to a stimulus that draw's one's attention to something (e.g. a deer running in a park)
If you believe that the mind is a product of the brain you would be considered a:
The gene for high sensitivity to PTC is dominant and low sensitivity is recessive. Suppose you have high sensitivity to tasting PTC (phenylthiocarbamide). If your mother can also taste it easily, what (if anything, can you predict about your father's ability to taste it?
Your father must also be high sensitivity to PTC
Your father must be low sensitivity to PTC
Your father must have one dominant gene and one recessive
We can make no predictions about your father
Suppose you have high sensitivity to PTC (involves a dominant gene). If your mother has low sensitivity (homozygous recessive), what (if anything) can you predict about your father's taste sensitivity?
He must have high sensitivity
He must have low sensitivity
He must have one dominant gene and one recessive
We can make no prediction about his sensitivity
A sex linked gene is on _____ chromosomes, whereas sex-limited genes are on _____ chromosomes
Sex limited genes are activated by:
Nones of the above
Adding a methyl group to a histone molecule _____ it's grip on DNA, exposing _____ genes to possible activation
Adding an acetyl group to a histone molecule _____ it's grip on DNA, exposing _____ genes to possible activation
What are the main types of evidence to estimate the heritability of some behaviour?
Similarity between monozygotic and dizygotic twins
Resemblance between adopted children and biological parents
Determine whether the gene is more common than average among people who show a particular behaviour
All of the above
Suppose someone determines the heritability of IQ scores for a given population. Then society changes in a way that provides the best possible opportunity for everyone within that population. Heritability will:
Stay the same
Impossible to tell
A mind-body philosophy marked by the belief that basic physical events (sense organs, nerve impulses, muscle contractions) are causal with respect to mental events (thoughts, consciousness and cognition):
A mind-body philosophy that the mind and body don't interact with each other, but simply run along side each other and there happens to be a correlation between the two, but neither causes each other:
A mind-body philosophy that mind and brain being distinct and independent, exert causal effects on one another:
The ability to inhibit impulses develop gradually from infancy to teen years, reflecting the gradual maturation of the frontal lobes in your brain. This is a(n) _____ explanation.
Chemical reactions that enable hormones to influence brain activity is an example of a(n) _____ explanation.
A species with an appearance that camouflages with the background, being advantageous against predators is a(n) _____ explanation:
Human goose bumps and monkeys using tools are examples of a(n) _____ explanation
The spreading of genes; the number of copies in one's genes that endure in later generations
The process in nature, where only the organisms best adapted to their environment tend to survive and transmit their genetic characteristics in increasing numbers to succeeding generations
Many people believe that the human appendix is useless. Because it is seen to be useless, will it become smaller and smaller with each generation?
Within the next fifty years
Within the next hundred years
Gradually, over the next thousand years