Week 1: Mind, brain and genes

Question 1 of 56

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An evolutionary explanation describes why a structure or behaviour evolved

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 2 of 56

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An ontogenetic explanation is one that describes the development of a structure

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 3 of 56

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The view of the brain from below is called the _____ view

Select one of the following:

  • Dorsal

  • Anterior

  • Linear

  • Ventral

Question 4 of 56

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An autosomal gene is a gene:

Select one of the following:

  • That shows no evidence of crossing over

  • On the X chromosome

  • On the Y chromosome

  • On any chromosome other than the X or Y chromosome

Question 5 of 56

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Sex-limited genes are found on:

Select one of the following:

  • Any chromosome

  • X chromosomes only

  • Y chromosomes only

  • X and Y chromosomes

Question 6 of 56

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If a group of individuals shares a highly similar environment, what effect does this have on the heritability estimate of a characteristic?

Select one of the following:

  • It is determined by the power of the environmental factors

  • Heritability will be low

  • Heritability will be high

  • Heritability estimates will be unaffected

Question 7 of 56

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Individuals affected with PKU need to avoid

Select one of the following:

  • Sunlight

  • Foods high in phenylalanine

  • Foods high in vitamin K

  • Alcohol

Question 8 of 56

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Why do children with PKU become mentally retarded?

Select one of the following:

  • Their immune system do not fight off brain infections

  • Dendrites and synapses fail to form in associative areas of the cortex

  • Unmetabolised amino acids accumulate and affect the brain

  • Essential axons lack myelin sheaths

Question 9 of 56

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Which of the following BEST describes the concept of evolution?

Select one of the following:

  • "Always look for ways to improve"

  • "Survival of the fittest"

  • "Reproduction of the fittest"

  • "If you don't use it, you lose it"

Question 10 of 56

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The theory of evolution through the inheritance of acquired characteristics is known as:

Select one of the following:

  • Huxley's evolution

  • Lamarckian evolution

  • Darwinian evolution

  • Artificial evolution

Question 11 of 56

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An evolutionary psychologist would likely be most interested in studying:

Select one of the following:

  • Neurotransmitters in primates

  • Altruistic behaviours of meerkats

  • Cardiovascular function across species

  • Anatomy of the rat brain

Question 12 of 56

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Why is a genetic explanation for altruism problematic?

Select one of the following:

  • No behaviour has been linked to any genes

  • Only non-human animals exhibit altruistic behaviours

  • Altruistic behaviours rarely benefit the individual performing them

  • Altruism is more common among the young than among adults

Question 13 of 56

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If a person believes that hormones released at different stages of the menstrual cycle affects a person's mood, then it would be considered a(n) ________ explanation.

Select one of the following:

  • Function

  • Ontogenetic

  • Physiological

  • Evolutionary

Question 14 of 56

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An _____ explanation describes how a structure or behaviour develops, including the influence of genes, nutrition, experiences, and their interactions

Select one of the following:

  • Functional

  • Ontogenetic

  • Physiological

  • Evolutionary

Question 15 of 56

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A problem facing dualism is:

Select one of the following:

  • Explaining the relationship between mind and spirit

  • Explaining how neural activity produces mental activity

  • Explaining how a non-physical mind can influence a physical brain

  • Explaining why the mind has non-physical properties

Question 16 of 56

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If you believe the mind and brain to be separate, but somehow interact with each other, you would be considered a:

Select one of the following:

  • Dualist

  • Materialist

  • Monist

  • Separatist

Question 17 of 56

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Mentalism refers to:

Select one of the following:

  • The view that only the mind really exists and that they physical world could not exist unless some mind were aware of it.

  • The view that everything that exists is material, or physical

  • The view that mental processes and certain kinds of brain processes are the same thing described in different terms

  • The belief that the mind and body are different kinds of substance that exist independently.

Question 18 of 56

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Which of the following positions would most likely be considered the opposite of materialism?

Select one of the following:

  • Monism

  • Mentalism

  • Identity position

  • Solipism

Question 19 of 56

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Chromosomes consist of large, double-stranded molecules of:

Select one of the following:

  • Deoxyribonucleic acid

  • Ribonucleic acid

  • Autosomal genes

  • Recombination genes

Question 20 of 56

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RNA is:

Select one of the following:

  • An exact copy of DNA

  • A complementary copy of one strand of a DNA molecule

  • The combination of many proteins

  • The product of digesting DNA

Question 21 of 56

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Suppose 'A' is a dominant gene and 'a' is a recessive gene. One parent has genes Aa and the other parent has genes aa. What genes will the children probably have?

Select one of the following:

  • All will be AA

  • All will be aa

  • 3/4 will be Aa; 1/4 will be aa

  • 1/2 will be Aa; 1/2 will be aa

Question 22 of 56

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Suppose both the father and mother are 'heterozygous' for the gene that controls the ability to curl the tongue lengthwise, and this gene is dominant. What can we predict about their children?

Select one of the following:

  • All will be heterozygous for the ability to curl

  • All will be homozygous for the ability to curl

  • All will be heterozygous for the inability to curl

  • They may be homozygous or heterozygous for the ability to curl, or homozygous for the inability to curl

Question 23 of 56

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Almost all humans have 23 pairs of which of the following?

Select one of the following:

  • RNA

  • Chromosomes

  • Genes

  • Autosomes

Question 24 of 56

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In carrying out a particular visual task, what advice would help a patient with spatial neglect?

Select one of the following:

  • Tell the person to look to the right

  • Tell them to keep their hands from crossing over each other

  • Tell them to close one eye and complete the task monocularly

  • Tell the person to look to the left

Question 25 of 56

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Spatial neglect is generally associated with damage to the:

Select one of the following:

  • Postcentral gyrus

  • Precentral gyrus

  • Fusiform gyrus

  • Parietal cortex

Question 26 of 56

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Determinists believe that:

Select one of the following:

  • Free will does not exist

  • The mind is entirely independent of the brain

  • The mind controls the body

  • The complexity of the brain has been exaggerated

Question 27 of 56

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Which of the following concepts is not associated with a type of dualism?

Select one of the following:

  • Mind is an epiphenomenon

  • The identity position

  • Mind and brain closely interact

  • Mind and brain are separate and do not always interact

Question 28 of 56

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The proposition that the mind is a new, emerging product of the brain is consisted with:

Select one of the following:

  • Materialism

  • Dualism

  • Monism

  • Determinism

Question 29 of 56

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Mental events can be described as epiphenomena if they:

Select one of the following:

  • Are identical to brain events

  • Influence consciousness

  • Do not affect brain events

  • All of the above warrant use of the term "epiphenomenon"

Question 30 of 56

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The results of the Benjamin Libet demonstration suggest which of the following sequences of events is correct?

Select one of the following:

  • Brain activity first; the experience of free-will second

  • The experience of free will first; brain activity second

  • Brain activity and the experience of free-will together at the same time

  • None of the above sequences is in the correct order according to Libet's demonstration

Question 31 of 56

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Which of the following is a statement typical of evolutionary psychology?

Select one of the following:

  • "Psychological depression may be adaptive to certain individuals, particularly for individuals of low social rank"

  • "Psychological depression may be advantageous under certain circumstances, particularly in dangerous and/or competitive environments"

  • "Given the persistence and high prevalence of psychological depression to this day, it is unlikely that depression is a disease state in the strict sense of the term"

  • All of the above statements are valid examples of evolutionary psychology

Question 32 of 56

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_____ is an attentional deficit that is commonly associated with _____ brain damage.

Select one of the following:

  • Neglect; left parietal

  • Neglect; right parietal

  • Inattentional blindness; left parietal

  • Inattentional blindness; right parietal

Question 33 of 56

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The tendency to see something as moving back and forth between two positions when in fact it is alternately blinking on and off in those positions is called:

Select one of the following:

  • Inattentional blindness

  • Binocular rivalry

  • Phi phenomenon

  • Backward masking

Question 34 of 56

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A brief visual stimulus after another brief stimulus that leads to failure to remember the first, is called:

Select one of the following:

  • Inattentional blindness

  • Binocular rivalry

  • Phi phenomenon

  • Backward masking

Question 35 of 56

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When perception alternates between two patterns, viewed as separate images by each eye. Because the brain cannot perceive two things in the same location.

Select one of the following:

  • Inattentional blindness

  • Binocular rivalry

  • Phi phenomenon

  • Backward masking

Question 36 of 56

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When something complex changes slowly, or changes while blinking, it will probably go unnoticed unless attentions was given to the particular item that changes

Select one of the following:

  • Inattentional blindness

  • Binocular rivalry

  • Phi phenomenon

  • Backward masking

Question 37 of 56

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An unintentional reaction to a stimulus that draw's one's attention to something (e.g. a deer running in a park)

Select one of the following:

  • Bottom-up attention

  • Top-down attention

  • Epiphenomenon

  • Free will

Question 38 of 56

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If you believe that the mind is a product of the brain you would be considered a:

Select one of the following:

  • Mind

  • Interactionist

  • Dualist

  • Mentalist

Question 39 of 56

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The gene for high sensitivity to PTC is dominant and low sensitivity is recessive. Suppose you have high sensitivity to tasting PTC (phenylthiocarbamide). If your mother can also taste it easily, what (if anything, can you predict about your father's ability to taste it?

Select one of the following:

  • Your father must also be high sensitivity to PTC

  • Your father must be low sensitivity to PTC

  • Your father must have one dominant gene and one recessive

  • We can make no predictions about your father

Question 40 of 56

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Suppose you have high sensitivity to PTC (involves a dominant gene). If your mother has low sensitivity (homozygous recessive), what (if anything) can you predict about your father's taste sensitivity?

Select one of the following:

  • He must have high sensitivity

  • He must have low sensitivity

  • He must have one dominant gene and one recessive

  • We can make no prediction about his sensitivity

Question 41 of 56

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A sex linked gene is on _____ chromosomes, whereas sex-limited genes are on _____ chromosomes

Select one of the following:

  • Any, sex

  • Sex, any

  • Y, any

  • Any, Y

Question 42 of 56

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Sex limited genes are activated by:

Select one of the following:

  • Vitamins

  • Enzymes

  • Hormones

  • Nones of the above

Question 43 of 56

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Adding a methyl group to a histone molecule _____ it's grip on DNA, exposing _____ genes to possible activation

Select one of the following:

  • Loosens, more

  • Loosens, fewer

  • Tightens, more

  • Tightens, fewer

Question 44 of 56

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Adding an acetyl group to a histone molecule _____ it's grip on DNA, exposing _____ genes to possible activation

Select one of the following:

  • Loosens, more

  • Loosens, fewer

  • Tightens, more

  • Tightens, fewer

Question 45 of 56

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What are the main types of evidence to estimate the heritability of some behaviour?

Select one of the following:

  • Similarity between monozygotic and dizygotic twins

  • Resemblance between adopted children and biological parents

  • Determine whether the gene is more common than average among people who show a particular behaviour

  • All of the above

Question 46 of 56

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Suppose someone determines the heritability of IQ scores for a given population. Then society changes in a way that provides the best possible opportunity for everyone within that population. Heritability will:

Select one of the following:

  • Increase

  • Decrease

  • Stay the same

  • Impossible to tell

Question 47 of 56

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A mind-body philosophy marked by the belief that basic physical events (sense organs, nerve impulses, muscle contractions) are causal with respect to mental events (thoughts, consciousness and cognition):

Select one of the following:

  • Interactionism

  • Epiphenomenalism

  • Parallelism

  • Determinism

Question 48 of 56

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A mind-body philosophy that the mind and body don't interact with each other, but simply run along side each other and there happens to be a correlation between the two, but neither causes each other:

Select one of the following:

  • Interactionism

  • Epiphenomenalism

  • Parallelism

  • Determinism

Question 49 of 56

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A mind-body philosophy that mind and brain being distinct and independent, exert causal effects on one another:

Select one of the following:

  • Interactionism

  • Epiphenomenalism

  • Parallelism

  • Determinism

Question 50 of 56

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The ability to inhibit impulses develop gradually from infancy to teen years, reflecting the gradual maturation of the frontal lobes in your brain. This is a(n) _____ explanation.

Select one of the following:

  • Functional

  • Evolutionary

  • Physiological

  • Ontogenetic

Question 51 of 56

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Chemical reactions that enable hormones to influence brain activity is an example of a(n) _____ explanation.

Select one of the following:

  • Functional

  • Evolutionary

  • Physiological

  • Ontogenetic

Question 52 of 56

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A species with an appearance that camouflages with the background, being advantageous against predators is a(n) _____ explanation:

Select one of the following:

  • Functional

  • Evolutionary

  • Physiological

  • Ontogenetic

Question 53 of 56

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Human goose bumps and monkeys using tools are examples of a(n) _____ explanation

Select one of the following:

  • Functional

  • Evolutionary

  • Physiological

  • Ontogenetic

Question 54 of 56

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The spreading of genes; the number of copies in one's genes that endure in later generations

Select one of the following:

  • Fitness

  • Genetic drift

  • Natural selection

  • Kin selection

Question 55 of 56

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The process in nature, where only the organisms best adapted to their environment tend to survive and transmit their genetic characteristics in increasing numbers to succeeding generations

Select one of the following:

  • Natural selection

  • Evolution

  • Lamarckian evolution

  • Fitness

Question 56 of 56

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Many people believe that the human appendix is useless. Because it is seen to be useless, will it become smaller and smaller with each generation?

Select one of the following:

  • Within the next fifty years

  • Within the next hundred years

  • Gradually, over the next thousand years

  • No

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Week 1: Mind, brain and genes

wadey
Quiz by , created about 2 years ago

HPS775 (Week 01: Brain, mind and genes) Quiz on Week 1: Mind, brain and genes, created by wadey on 09/10/2014.

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