Proliferation is the production of new cells
Synaptogenesis is a process that begins before birth and continues throughout life.
Recent evidence suggests that adult vertebrate brains generate new neurons
The brain requires millions of chemicals to correctly guide the growth of axons to their target locations
Nerve growth factor is a chemical that promotes the survival and activity of neurons
Exercise may account for some of the neural benefits that come from rearing rats in an enriched environment
Diaschisis refers to the decreased activity of surviving neurons after damage to other neurons
Paralysis caused by spinal cord injury is usually only temporary in humans
Recent evidence suggests that phantom limb pain is caused by sensations coming from the stump of the amputated limb
Proliferation is the:
Formation of dendrites and an axon
Movement of primitive neurons and glia
Insulation process that occurs on some axons
Production of new cells
After the migrating neuron reaches its destination, _____ begin to form
In humans, myelination first occurs in the:
When Sperry cut a newt's optic nerve and rotated the eye by 180 degrees, each axon:
Regenerated to the area where it had originally been
Regenerated to a random location
Regenerated, but to the area appropriate to its new location
Axons sort themselves over the surface of the target area:
Based on their size
By following a gradient of chemicals
Competition of neurons for postsynaptic sites results in survival of only the most successful axons. The general principle is called:
_____ steer new axonal branches and synapses in the right direction
The function of neurotrophins is to:
Be used as fuel
Promote survival of axons
Signal that an axon has been "rejected"
In infants, anaesthetic drugs can increase:
What brain abnormalities are found in children with fetal alcohol syndrome?
Lack of dopamine receptors
Short dendrites with few branches
Smaller than normal ventricles
Short axons with few branches
Children of mothers who use cocaine during pregnancy:
Have slightly lower IQ scores
Are likely to develop Turner's syndrome
Are born with severe abnormalities resembling cerebral palsy
Have a slightly higher birth weight
Which of the following seem to be particularly important for branching neurons during brain development?
Having good teachers
Playing logic games
Having a sterile environment
Which of the following is the most common cause of stroke?
Haemorrhage of an artery
Ischemia from an obstruction of an artery
Blow to the head
Lack of glucose
Ischaemia is to _____as haemorrhage is to _____
Barely noticeable; lethal
Older individuals; younger individuals
Which of the following treatments would be most likely to help a patient starting several days after a stroke?
Extensive bed rest
Giving stimulant drugs combined with physical therapy
Injecting a drug to block dopamine
What is the term for the new branches that may form in uninjured axons after damage to surrounding axons?
_____ helps compensate for decreased axon input
A continuing sensation of an amputated body part is called:
Sensations from phantom limbs:
Do not have a neural basis
Are a result of brain reorganisation
Can be diminished if more of the limb is removed surgically
Come from the stump of the amputated limb
The fluid-filled cavity of the developing neural tube becomes the:
Stem cells are important for which of the following developmental processes?
What term describes the movement of primitive neurons and glia within the developing nervous system?
After the migrating neuron reaches its destination, _____ begin to form.
The formation of new synapses is called:
Brain cells that are neither neurons nor glia, but which are capable of dividing and then differentiating into neurons or glia are called:
Axons sort themselves over the surface of the target area
Is a programmed mechanism of cell death
Promotes the survival and growth of the axon
Promotes the survival and growth of dendrites
Promotes the activity of neurons
Massive cell death in the brain during prenatal development is:
An indication of a genetic abnormality
An indication of restricted blood flow to the foetus
Usually due to an autoimmune disorder
In development, neurotrophins _____. During adulthood, they _____.
Preserve neurons; produce apoptosis
Produce apoptosis; increase neural branching
Facilitate differentiation; facilitate migration
Preserve neurons; increase neural branching
In what order are the five distinct stages in the development of the brain
Migration, differentiation, proliferation, synaptogenesis
Proliferation, differentiation, migration, myelination, synaptogenesis
Proliferation, migration, differentiation, myelination, synaptogenesis
Proliferation, myelination, migration, differentiation, synaptogenesis
Certain axons innervating a given neuron are damaged. What compensatory change is possible?
a. Denervation supersensitivity
b. Collateral sprouting
c. Axonal regrowth
d. All of the above