W9: Wakefulness and sleep test

Question 1 of 47

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Animals produce endogenous circadian rhythms that last about a day

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 2 of 47

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The dominant zeitegeber for land animals is light.

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 3 of 47

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Blind and deaf animals do not have circadian rhythms

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 4 of 47

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The biological clock depends on part of the hypothalamus, called the suprachiasmatic nucleus

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 5 of 47

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Changes in EEG waves occur when neurons fire in synchrony

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 6 of 47

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Dreams only occur during REM sleep

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 7 of 47

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The regular use of tranquillisers can result in insomnia

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 8 of 47

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Narcolepsy is a condition characterised by frequent periods of sleepiness during the day

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 9 of 47

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In general, animals that have the most total sleep also have the highest percentage of REM sleep

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 10 of 47

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The activation-synthesis theory of dreams argues that dreams are the result of random brain activity

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 11 of 47

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If a migratory bird is kept in a laboratory room with constant temperature and 12 hours of light each day, when does it show migratory readiness?

Select one of the following:

  • At approximately the correct time of year for migration

  • At random intervals throughout the year

  • Steadily at all times

  • Never

Question 12 of 47

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Circadian cycles are to _____ as circannual cycles are to _____.

Select one of the following:

  • Mating; hibernating

  • Daily; yearly

  • Light-Dark; temperature

  • Endogenous; exogenous

Question 13 of 47

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Which of the following is most clearly under the control of a circadian rhythm in most animals?

Select one of the following:

  • Migration

  • Mating

  • Sleep

  • Storage of body fat

Question 14 of 47

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A human's body temperature over the course of 24 hours is usually highest:

Select one of the following:

  • Mid to late afternoon

  • In the middle of the night

  • About the time of awakening

  • Mid-morning

Question 15 of 47

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Mammals have circadian rhythms:

Select one of the following:

  • For sleep and body temperature only

  • For a variety of activities, including sleep

  • Only for their sleep/activity cycle

  • Only for frequency of eating and drinking

Question 16 of 47

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What happens if people are put in an environment that is constantly light?

Select one of the following:

  • They complain that they have difficulty waking up

  • They follow a cycle closer to 28 hours than to 24 hours

  • It does not affect them in any way

  • They complain that they cannot sleep

Question 17 of 47

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An astronaut orbiting the dart experiences 45-minute periods of daylight alternating with 45 minutes of darkness. What is likely to happen?

Select one of the following:

  • They are able to sleep during rest periods

  • They sleep poorly during rest periods

  • The alternating patterns allow for normal rhythm development

  • They are fully alert during wakeful periods

Question 18 of 47

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What happens if people live in an environment in which the cycle of light and dark is other than 24 hours?

Select one of the following:

  • They adjust better if the cycle is close to 24 (e.g., 25)

  • They fail to adjust at all

  • Within a few days, they adjust to waking and sleeping on the new schedule, whatever it is

  • They adjust better if the cycle is some multiple of 24 (e.g., 48)

Question 19 of 47

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Research on circadian rhythms has shown that one of the best ways to increase the alertness and efficiency of workers on night shifts is to:

Select one of the following:

  • Have them eat a big meal before going to sleep

  • Allow them to catnap

  • Expose them to bright lights while they work

  • Keep the environmental temperature constant from night to day

Question 20 of 47

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The surest way to disrupt the biological clock is to damage the:

Select one of the following:

  • Lateral hypothalamus

  • Suprachiasmatic nucleus

  • Substantia nigra

  • Caudate nucleus

Question 21 of 47

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The suprachiasmatic nucleus is found in the:

Select one of the following:

  • Thalamus

  • Hypothalamus

  • Substantia nigra

  • Caudate nucleus

Question 22 of 47

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The role of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in the regulation of biological rhythms is to:

Select one of the following:

  • Generate the circadian rhythm

  • Generate the circannual rhythm

  • Coordinate several biological clocks

  • Feed visual information to the biological clock

Question 23 of 47

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The input form the eyes to the suprachiasmatic nucleus, responsible for shifting the phase of the circadian rhythm, originates from:

Select one of the following:

  • Cones and rods equally

  • Rods only

  • Cones only

  • Ganglion cells that are not connected to any cones or rods

Question 24 of 47

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Slow-wave sleep is comprised of:

Select one of the following:

  • Stage 3 and 4

  • REM sleep

  • Alpha wave sleep

  • Stages 1 and 2

Question 25 of 47

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EEG waves are larger when brain activity decreases because:

Select one of the following:

  • Neurons are becoming more desynchronised

  • Blood flow is increasing

  • The EEG measures muscle tension, which also decreases

  • Neurons are becoming more synchronised

Question 26 of 47

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During REM sleep, the EEG shows:

Select one of the following:

  • Regular, low-voltage slow waves

  • Irregular, low voltage fast waves

  • Regular, high-voltage slow waves

  • Irregular, high-voltage slow waves

Question 27 of 47

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During sleep, what happens in the brain?

Select one of the following:

  • Decreased firing by dopamine neurons

  • Increased firing by GABA neurons

  • Cessation of spontaneous activity in neurons

  • Increased firing by dopamine neurons

Question 28 of 47

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What are the dreamlike experiences at the onset of sleep that are difficult to distinguish from reality?

Select one of the following:

  • Occipital illusions

  • Pseudo-psychedelic visions

  • Hypnagogic hallucinations

  • Idiopathic-hallucinations

Question 29 of 47

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Loss of orexin-containing neurons in the hypothalamus may contribute to:

Select one of the following:

  • Insomnia

  • Periodic limb movement disorder

  • Sleep apnea

  • Narcolepsy

Question 30 of 47

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According to the evolutionary perspective of sleep, the primary function of sleep is to:

Select one of the following:

  • Restore body functions that were exhausted during wakefulness

  • Enable the person to re-experience, in dreams, the events of the past

  • Conserve energy

  • Promote brain development

Question 31 of 47

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Research suggests that _____ sleep is the most important for strengthening memories of motor skills

Select one of the following:

  • Deep

  • REM

  • Stage II

  • Stage I

Question 32 of 47

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During dreaming, which of the following area(s) continue to be highly active?

Select one of the following:

  • The areas of the prefrontal cortex that are key to working memory

  • The primary visual cortex and primary auditory cortex

  • The hypothalamus, amygdala, and other emotional areas

  • The primary motor cortex in the precentral gyrus

Question 33 of 47

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A free-running rhythm is a rhythm that:

Select one of the following:

  • Occurs when specific stimuli reset or alter it

  • Occurs when stimuli do not alter it

  • Occurs when stimuli reset or alter it

  • Occurs when no stimuli reset or alter it

Question 34 of 47

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After damage to the suprachiasmatic nucleus, the body:

Select one of the following:

  • Cannot generate biological rhythms

  • Still has rhythms in synchrony with environmental patterns of light and dark

  • Still has rhythms, but they are less consistent

  • Still has rhythms, but they can only be reset by artificial light

Question 35 of 47

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The role of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in the regulation of biological rhythms is to:

Select one of the following:

  • Coordinate several biological clocks

  • Feed visual information to the biological clock

  • Generate the circadian rhythm

  • Generate circannual rhythms

Question 36 of 47

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The retinohypothalamic pathway receives input from the:

Select one of the following:

  • Retinal ganglion cells that respond directly to light

  • Occipital cortex

  • SCN

  • LGN

Question 37 of 47

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When do secretions of melatonin begin?

Select one of the following:

  • Just before a person wakes

  • When body temperature is at its lowest

  • When body temperature is at its highest

  • A couple of hours before a person naturally falls asleep

Question 38 of 47

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Alpha waves are characteristic of what type of activity?

Select one of the following:

  • NREM sleep

  • Nightmares

  • Relaxed wakefulness

  • Periods of great excitement

Question 39 of 47

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What are symptoms of paradoxical sleep?

Select one of the following:

  • Alpha waves

  • Stages 1 and 2

  • Stages 3 and 4

  • REM sleep

Question 40 of 47

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The _____ is a structure that extends from the medulla into the forebrain

Select one of the following:

  • Reticular formation

  • Tectum

  • Tegmentum

  • Thalamus

Question 41 of 47

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In response to meaningful events, the locus coeruleus releases:

Select one of the following:

  • Norepinephrine

  • Acetylcholine

  • Dopamine

  • Serotonin

Question 42 of 47

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REM sleep is associated with:

Select one of the following:

  • Tension and activity of the postural muscles

  • PGO waves in the brain

  • A highly synchronised EEG pattern

  • Decreased heart rate

Question 43 of 47

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Sleep apnea is:

Select one of the following:

  • Involuntary movements of the arms and legs during sleep

  • Inability to breathe while sleeping

  • Tendency to fall asleep suddenly during the day

  • Same as sleep-talking

Question 44 of 47

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What is narcolepsy?

Select one of the following:

  • Sleepwalking

  • The inability to breathe while sleeping

  • Involuntary movements of the limbs while sleeping

  • Sudden periods of sleepiness during the day

Question 45 of 47

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The biological clock depends on part of the hypothalamus called the:

Select one of the following:

  • a. Suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)

  • b. Superior colliculus

  • c. Substantia nigra

  • d. Inferior colliculus

Question 46 of 47

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Which stage of sleep involves sleep spindles, K-complexes and bursts of 12-14 Hz waves

Select one of the following:

  • a. Stage 1

  • b. Stage 2

  • c. Stages 3 & 4

  • d. REM sleep

Question 47 of 47

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Which of the following are possible reasons for why we sleep FALSE?

Select one of the following:

  • a. To save energy

  • b. To improve memory

  • c. To make sense of the world

  • d. To help us predict the future

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W9: Wakefulness and sleep test

wadey
Quiz by , created about 2 years ago

HPS775 (Week 09: Wakefulness and sleep) Quiz on W9: Wakefulness and sleep test, created by wadey on 11/10/2014.

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Created by wadey about 2 years ago
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