What is power?
The ability to control or impose your will upon others.
Having the physical might over people.
A right or benefit that is given to some people and not to others.
The power to give orders and make decisions.
What is politics? (You can select more than one)
The activities associated with the governance of a country or area, especially the debate between parties having power.
Who gets what, when, how, and why.
The authoritative allocation of values for a society.
A particular set of Political beliefs or principles.
Interactions between states and the international system.
What is comparative politics?
The study of phenomena across states.
The study of interactions between states and the international system.
The study of good decision making.
The study of governments, justice, liberty, prosperity, rights, and war.
Which branch of the government is responsible for implementing laws?
Executive and legistalative
One or two houses of representatives in the legislative branch is referred to as...
uni- or bicameral
unitary or federal
codified or non-codified
ministries or cohabitation
What is the "modernisation theory?"
The idea that democracy occurs as a result of economic growth and cultural changes.
The idea that democracy promotes economic growth due to more political freedom.
As countries become more secular, they experience more economic growth.
As countries democratise and experience economic growth, dramatic cultural changes will occur.
What was Huntington's theory on global conflicts?
Global clashes occur as a result of a difference in economic interests.
Cultural characteristics will become more homogenised over time and less global conflicts will occur.
Individuals are born with certain characteristics, and these cultural characteristics will drive future conflicts.
Global conflicts do not occur as a result of clash of civilisations, as they don't actually exist as previously described in discourse.
What are the differences between Marx and Weber's opinion on political identity?
Weber saw political identity as an ingrained part of our cultural identity, while Marx believed that economic interests was ingrained in political identity and our cultural identity.
Weber believed that it was political identity which would be the driving force in global conflicts, while Marx believed that it was economic identity.
Marx saw political cleavage as the driving force that effected economic interests, while Weber saw it as the cultural class-consciousness that influenced political identity.
Marx believes economic interests shapes political identity, while Weber believes it is cultural interests that shapes political identity.
What was Madison's Dilemma?
Politicians are self-interested and governments should have a system of checks & balances.
States have usually been in contact with each other throughout history, which implies that the adoption of particular political systems cannot be isolated to a few select variables.
Humans are self-interested, but also desire the feeling of belonging, which explains why nationalism was such a late development.
The state only has power so long as its citizens believe in it.
What was the democratisation sequence in the "transition paradigm?"
Breakthrough, opening, reform
Opening, breakthrough, consolidation
Collapse, opening, reform
Breakdown, opening, reform
What was the "collective action problem?"
A situation where individuals have private incentives, but decide to participate in an action that benefits all members of the group.
A situation where the legislature cannot come to a mutual agreement over a policy or law.
A situation where individuals have private incentives not to participate in an action that benefit all members of the group.
A situation where there is internal conflict within a party, and therefore a collective idea can be pursued.
According to Hobbes, without a common power, society would exist in a state of...
peace and harmony
Which concepts did Locke's "Two Treaties on Government" expand upon?
The social contract and "divine right of kings"
The "divine rights of kings" and political identity
The social contract and political identity
The powers of the executive and legislative branch
According to the ideological state apparatuses...
economics reinforces ideological beliefs.
ideological differences between states creates conflicts.
states with a strong ideology tend to be authoritarian.
state institutes reproduce the conditions of a capitalist state.
What are the ideas behind "good and bad governance?" (you can select more than one)
Good governance is not necessarily moral governance.
Governance affects the quality of life
Form of government is predetermined by choice
We can distinguish between good and bad governance
Why was Machiavelli's "Il Principe" so influential?
It was the first sarcastic account of a political structure.
It bridged pre-modern and modern thinking.
It promoted authoritarian rule.
Machiavelli wrote it.
What was John Stuart Mill's "method of difference?"
If two or more examples have a variable in common, and all only have only one other variable in common, the variables are correlated.
If a dependent variable is common to all instances but one, and in that one instance, the independent variable is different, the variables are correlated.
If different variables results in a common outcome, it is that common outcome which shows the instances are correlated.
If all variables are the same, except for one, and they all have share a common outcome, then the differing variable is an outlier.
The independent variables of the "occupational hazards" are... (can select more than one)
necessity of occupation
whether the occupation furthers the interests of the occupying powers
commonly perceived threat
guarantee that the occupying force will withdraw is credible
success of overthrowing occupying force
Which factors can attribute to late state formation?
Military investment, agricultural production, collapse of feudalism, and enlightenment.
Capitalist economy, need to defend territory, shared cultural identity
Tax, stability of a centralised power, and democratic ideals
War, economics, political interests, and geographical luck
Which factors, that we discussed, can contribute to regime change?
Democratisation/collapse of democracy
Conscription armies and mass education
Foreign policy interests of global powers and neighbours
What characterises "primordalism"?
Nations are naturally occurring entities, which you are born into.
Human nature has no objective for the greater good; it's a war of all against all.
Political leaders will do anything to maintain power; the end justifies the means.
Individuals will chose not to act for the greater good in favour for their own personal interests.
What are the essential components of a democratic constitutions?
Codified, established governmental organs, and popular sovereignty.
Open fair elections, accountability, reflection of national values.
Established governmental organs, guarantee of basic citizen rights, popular sovereignty.
Open fair elections, non-codified, guarantee of basic citizen rights for electorate.
What are the two forms of constitutionalism?
codified and non-codified
unitary and federal
realism and liberalism
presidential and parliamentary
Which is not an example of a hybrid regime that we discussed?
Which is not a necessary feature of democracy?
Elections by majority rule
What is it called when the President and Prime Minister's policies do not coordinate?
Competitive action problem
In the Semi-Presidential system, the president is responsible for... (can select more than one)
Appointing the Prime Minister
Nominating members of the legislature
In the Parliamentary system, the prime minister is responsible for... (can select more than one)
setting the agenda
Terminating the parliament
organising cabinet committees
Appointing members of the legislature
In the Presidential system, the president is responsible for... (can select more than one)
Dissolving the legislature
appointing members of the cabinet
Which are characteristics of a federal state?
delegation of powers from central authorities
deconcentration of central government employees away from the capital
multi-layered with subunits
decentralisation of supplementing and executing laws
necessity of court and judicial review
state consent built into constitutional revision process
Which factors contributed to the emergence of states?
Social and philosophical changes
Collapse of trading leagues
Peace and non-intervention policies
What were the criteria for declaring statehood according to the Montevideo Convention?
Recognition by other states
Capacity to enter into relations with other states