A theory differs from a fact in that a theory
proves how different influences affect a particular phenomenon
attempts to explain and give some logical order to observations
is a collection of facts about a particular phenomenon
shows a relationship among facts about a particular phenomenon
The biological theory of aging uses a genetic perspective and suggests that aging is a programmed process in which:
each person will age exactly like those in the previous generation
a “biological clock” ticks off a predetermined number of cell divisions
genetic traits can overcome environmental influences
age-related physical changes are controlled only by genetic factors
The Gene Theory of aging proposes that
the presence of a “master gene” prolongs youth
genes interact with each other to resist aging
specific genes target specific body systems to initiate system deterioration
the activation of harmful genes initiates the aging process.
The theory that identifies an unstable molecule as the causative factor in aging is the _____ theory.
The nurse assesses that the patient who uses good health maintenance practices believes in the aging theory known as the _____ theory.
wear and tear
The nurse describes the neuroendocrine theory of aging as a complex process of
relating thyroid function to age-related changes
the effects of adrenal corticosteroids, which inhibit the aging process
stimulation and/or inhibition of the hypothalamus, causing age-related changes
adrenal medulla inhibition of epinephrine, causing age-related changes
The nurse explains that psychosocial theories differ from biologic theories in that psychosocial theories
focus on methods to delay the aging process
are directed at decreasing depression in the older adult
are organized to enhance the perception of aging
attempt to explain responses to the aging process.
The major objection to the disengagement theory is that the theory:
addresses the diversity of older adults
does not clarify the aging process
diminishes the self-esteem of the older adult
The 80-year-old who teaches Sunday school every week and delivers food for Meals on Wheels is following _____ theory.
The life course
The nurse would recognize successful aging according to Jung’s theory when the nurse notes that a resident at a long-term care facility
takes special care to dress for dinner in a manner that pleases his tablemates.
asks permission to sit on the patio with other residents.
asks persons in his hall if his television is bothering them
wears a large cowboy hat at all times because he likes it.
The older adult female patient is positive that the free radical lipofuscin can be counteracted by:
avoiding animal fat.
use of antioxidants.
building up muscle mass
A recently widowed woman moved to an assisted living community because of her hypertension and joined a group to learn how to do water color painting with other women her age. The nurse assesses that the patient is following the aging theory of:
The nurse’s list of age-related illnesses thought to cause the accumulation of free radicals includes __________. (Select all that apply.)
The nurse emphasizes that the relatively new theory that correlates restricted caloric intake to slowing of the aging process would probably extend the life span of the person, provided that the person __________. (Select all that apply.)
consistently eats high-nutrient, low-calorie foods
maintains a regular exercise program
consumes 2000 to 3000 mL of fluid a day
supports the diet with adequate fat-soluble vitamins
eats only organically grown foods
The nurse points out that the positive outcomes from a “life review,” according to Erikson, would include __________. (Select all that apply.)
wisdom and integrated self-image
comparing self with others
understanding self and relationships
seeking another’s opinion of his or her achievement
acceptance of self
When a patient asks what can be done to neutralize the free radicals in his system, the nurse responds that antioxidant therapy is thought to inhibit free radicals. Antioxidants include __________. (Select all that apply.)