Who proposed the ABO blood grouping system?
How was the ABO blood grouping system tested?
Human erythrocyte membranes contain antigenic proteins and glycoproteins, but what do they lack that nucleated cells possess (besides the obvious)?
What are two main factors that are the major cause of a rejection reaction after a blood transfusion?
In early life, perhaps before 3 months of age, antibodies are produced that are present in the plasma. The only antibodies produced are against antigens that your erythrocytes do NOT possess. What is this antibody production suggested to be a response to?
If a person is blood type O, what antigens do they have on their erythrocytes and what antibodies do they have in their plasma?
If an individual is blood group A, what antigens do they have on their erythrocytes and what antibodies are present in their plasma?
If an individual is ABO blood group B, what antigens are present on their erythrocytes and what antibodies are present in their plasma?
If an individual is ABO blood group AB, what antigens do their erythrocytes possess and what antibodies does their plasma contain?
Where might antigens be present on a membrane?
What is responsible for blood group incompatibility?
The A and B antigens of the ABO blood grouping system are added on to a universal structure - the H antigen, which is all that blood group O individuals express on their erythrocytes. What four components make up the H antigen?
What is the A antigen carbohydrate?
What is the B antigen carbohydrate?
In an AB individual, in what order are the carbohydrates expressed on the antigen?
What is necessary for A or B antigens to be expressed?
What is Landsteiner's law?
What are immunoglobulins?
What are the five types of immunoglobulin?
What approxiate proportion of serum immunoglobulin does IgM comprise?
What are the heavy chains of IgM?
Why is the production of IgM a primary immune response?
Which immunoglobulin is naturally present against antigens A and B?
What approximate proportion of serum immunoglobulin does IgG comprise?
What type of chains are the heavy chains of IgG?
Why is the production of IgG a secondary immune response?
An antibody is Y-shaped. Where are the two identical binding sites for its antigen?
An antibody is composed of 4 polypeptide chains. What are these and what holds them together?
How is the antigen-binding site of an antibody formed?
Which parts of the antibody differ most in their sequence and structure between antibodies?
Erythrocytes are biconcave discoid in shape. They can approach each other in isotonic solution as close as 7.9nm (spherical face) or 10.3nm (concave face). What is this governed by?
What is the agglutination reaction?
What would you test to identify an individual's ABO blood group?
What is the forward aspect of the agglutination reaction?
What is the reverse aspect of the agglutination reaction?
What should be true of the forward and reverse aspects of an ABO blood grouping test?
Describe the dominant nature of the ABO genes inherited from our parents.
How did Landsteiner and Weiner discover the Rhesus factor?
A similar antibody to the Rhesus factor was found in which humans?
What is erythroblastosis fetalis?
What is kernicterus?
What is the correct term for erythrocyte destruction?
How can erythroblastosis fetalis be prevented?
What are the 3 pairs of genes within the Rhesus group?
Which antigen do people originally labelled 'Rhesus positive' have on the surface of their erythrocytes?
What is the Rhesus group determined by?
Which groups of people is the Rh d antigen present and not present?
Which blood type makes up 44% of the UK population, with 37% being Rhesus positive and 7% being Rhesus negative?
Which blood group makes up 42% of the population, with 35% being Rhesus positive and 7% being Rhesus negative?
Which blood group makes up 10% of the UK population, with 8% being Rhesus positive and 2% being Rhesus negative?
Which blood group is the rarest in the UK population, constituting only 4% of people, with 3% of these being Rhesus positive and 1% being Rhesus negative?
Genes in populations differ geographically. Where in the world are there populations of entirely ABO blood group O people?
Antibodies to ABO antigens are present in everybody, except..?
ABO antigens are present in humans without what?
What is causes when a person undergoes a mismatching blood transfusion?
What happens when a person undergoes a mismatching blood transfusion?
The immunological reaction that results from a mismatched blood transfusion can result from how low an amount of blood?
Which blood group is universally accepted by people's immune systems but relatively rare in the UK (7%) and kept for emergencies?
Antibodies to Rh antigens are only present following prior sensitisation. What forms might this sensitisation take?
Why can Rh positive ABO group-matched blood be given to Rh negative men once in an emergency?
List three blood grouping systems other than the ABO and Rhesus systems, and the antigens they involve.
What makes an antigen a 'poor antigen'?
What are the most frequent causes of giving incompatible blood?
What is cross-matching of blood?
What is the purpose of cross-matching blood?