APUSH Midterm Exam

Question 1 of 126

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Which of the following statements accurately describes Prince Henry the Navigator's role in encouraging Portuguese exploration?

Select one of the following:

  • He gained the support of merchants to finance exploration

  • He encouraged Portuguese sailors to use caravels

  • He looked for alternative routes to Asia

  • All of these

Question 2 of 126

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Which statement concerning the West African empires prior to 1600 is true?

Select one of the following:

  • They engaged in vigorous trade, were Islamic, and were known for their wealth

  • They had no written language and no transportation infrastructures

  • They were infested with tsetse flies and therefore unable to develop a state bureaucracy

  • They were generally warrior states with little inclination to develop agriculture

Question 3 of 126

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How did Puritans want to reform the Church of England?

Select one of the following:

  • They wanted to revert to purer Roman Catholic rituals

  • They wanted to purify it of Roman Catholic rituals

  • They wanted to purge the church of Quaker influences

  • They wanted to distinguish between clergy and congregation

Question 4 of 126

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Which of the following is not a legacy of the Reformation?

Select one of the following:

  • The development of various denominations in Europe

  • The idea that clergy have no special powers

  • A counter-reformation by the Catholic Church

  • Cooperation between Protestant denominations and the Catholic Church

Question 5 of 126

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"When they were allowed to go home, they often found it deserted and no other recourse than to go out into the woods to find
food and to die. When they fell ill, which was very frequently because they are a delicate people unaccustomed to such work,
the Spaniards did not believe them and pitilessly called them lazy dogs, and kicked and beat them; and when illness was
apparent they sent them home as useless, giving them some cassava for the twenty-to eighty-league journey. They would go
then, failing into the first stream and dying there in desperation; others would hold on longer, but very few ever made it home.
I sometimes came upon dead bodies on my way, and upon others who were gasping and moaning in their death agony,
repeating "Hungry, hungry."
- Bartolome de las Casas, priest and social reformer, In Defense of the Indian, c. 1550
Which of the following best explains the underlying cause of the Spanish actions described in Las Casas?

Select one of the following:

  • Racism

  • Religion

  • Desire for wealth

  • Fear of native power

Question 6 of 126

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When they were allowed to go home, they often found it deserted and no other recourse than to go out into the woods to find
food and to die. When they fell ill, which was very frequently because they are a delicate people unaccustomed to such work,
the Spaniards did not believe them and pitilessly called them lazy dogs, and kicked and beat them; and when illness was
apparent they sent them home as useless, giving them some cassava for the twenty-to eighty-league journey. They would go
then, failing into the first stream and dying there in desperation; others would hold on longer, but very few ever made it home.
I sometimes came upon dead bodies on my way, and upon others who were gasping and moaning in their death agony,
repeating "Hungry, hungry."
- Bartolome de las Casas, priest and social reformer, In Defense of the Indian, c. 1550
The primary audience that Las Casas hoped to influence by his writing was

Select one of the following:

  • The monarchs of Spain

  • The Roman Catholic Church

  • The conquistadores

  • The Native Americans

Question 7 of 126

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When they were allowed to go home, they often found it deserted and no other recourse than to go out into the woods to find
food and to die. When they fell ill, which was very frequently because they are a delicate people unaccustomed to such work,
the Spaniards did not believe them and pitilessly called them lazy dogs, and kicked and beat them; and when illness was
apparent they sent them home as useless, giving them some cassava for the twenty-to eighty-league journey. They would go
then, failing into the first stream and dying there in desperation; others would hold on longer, but very few ever made it home.
I sometimes came upon dead bodies on my way, and upon others who were gasping and moaning in their death agony,
repeating "Hungry, hungry."
Which of the following factors that affected Native Americans is directly implied but not stated in this excerpt?

Select one of the following:

  • Many Spaniards were sympathetic to the Native Americans

  • The Catholic Church was trying to help the Native Americans

  • European diseases were killing millions of Native Americans

  • The Spanish faced strong resistance from Native Americans

Question 8 of 126

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Which of the following problems could be seen in English society in the 15th and 16th centuries?

Select one of the following:

  • High Unemployment

  • A rapidly growing population

  • Class differences

  • All of these

Question 9 of 126

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Which of the following does not correctly portray an aspect of the Columbian exchange?

Select one of the following:

  • Europeans carried deadly germs to the Americas

  • The Americas sent corn and potatoes to Europe

  • The Americas sent horses to Europe

  • Europeans introduced coffee to the New World

Question 10 of 126

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Which of the following best explains why Massachusetts Bay Colony officials banished Anne Hutchinson?

Select one of the following:

  • She challenged gender roles and Puritan orthodoxy

  • She was found guilty of practicing witchcraft

  • She preached the doctrine of predestination

  • She gave birth out of wedlock

Question 11 of 126

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How did the Renaissance encouraged exploration?

Select one of the following:

  • It led Italian monarchs to support explorers in search of a return to Rome's greatness

  • It encouraged individuals to search for new knowledge and information

  • It destroyed the connections between Christianity and Science

  • It ended the disputes between Protestantism and Catholicism

Question 12 of 126

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"Be it therefore ordered and enacted... That whatsoever person or persons within this Province shall henceforth blaspheme God, that is Curse him, or deny our Savior Jesus Christ to be the Son of God, or shall deny the holy Trinity... or the Godhead of any of the said Three persons of the Trinity or the Unity of the Godhead... shall be punished with death and confiscation or forfeiture of all his or her lands... And whereas... that no person or persons whatsoever within this province, or the islands, ports, harbors, creeks, or havens thereunto belonging professing to believe in Jesus Christ, shall from henceforth be any way troubled, molested or discountenanced for or in respect of his or her religion nor in free exercise thereof within this province or the islands thereunto belonging nor any way compelled to the belief or exercise of any other Religion against his or her consent."
- The Maryland Act of Toleration, 1649
Which of the following religious groups were the authors of the Maryland Act of Toleration trying to protect?

Select one of the following:

  • Jews

  • Puritans

  • Quakers

  • Roman Catholics

Question 13 of 126

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"Be it therefore ordered and enacted... That whatsoever person or persons within this Province shall henceforth blaspheme God, that is Curse him, or deny our Savior Jesus Christ to be the Son of God, or shall deny the holy Trinity... or the Godhead of any of the said Three persons of the Trinity or the Unity of the Godhead... shall be punished with death and confiscation or forfeiture of all his or her lands... And whereas... that no person or persons whatsoever within this province, or the islands, ports, harbors, creeks, or havens thereunto belonging professing to believe in Jesus Christ, shall from henceforth be any way troubled, molested or discountenanced for or in respect of his or her religion nor in free exercise thereof within this province or the islands thereunto belonging nor any way compelled to the belief or exercise of any other Religion against his or her consent."
- The Maryland Act of Toleration, 1649
Which of the following best summarizes the attitude toward religious beliefs expressed in this document?

Select one of the following:

  • All individuals should be free to believe or not believe in God as they wished

  • Religion was a personal matter that the government should not try to influence

  • Christians should be able to practice their faith without fear of persecution

  • The colony should be reserved for one specific type of Christianity approved by the local government officials

Question 14 of 126

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Why did Charles I restore the Virginia Assembly in 1639?

Select one of the following:

  • He needed tobacco revenues and the support of Virginia's planters.

  • He wanted to democratize the British colonies

  • He hoped to strengthen the Anglican Church in Virginia

  • He thought it would prevent Virginia from giving in to Spanish enroachments

Question 15 of 126

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What did Governor John Winthrop of Massachusetts Bay colony advocate?

Select one of the following:

  • He supported distinct roles for the different classes.

  • He supported class struggle

  • He supported cradle-to-grave health coverage

  • He supported equality between the sexes

Question 16 of 126

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Jamestown, the first permanent English settlement in the New World, was founded by:

Select one of the following:

  • Three aristocratic proprietors seeking private gain

  • A joint stock company anxious to return a profit to its investors

  • King James I, eager to gain a base for expeditions against Spanish shipping

  • John Smith, seeking to spread Christianity

Question 17 of 126

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What happened to tobacco prices around 1660?

Select one of the following:

  • They began a steady rise after having been stagnant for years

  • They surged to record levels

  • They plunged below what was needed for a family to survive

  • They returned to the levels of the 1630s

Question 18 of 126

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Which of the following reduced the Native American population in New England?

Select one of the following:

  • Disease introduced by Europeans

  • The Pequot War

  • King Philip's War

  • All of These

Question 19 of 126

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Which statement accurately describes the role of religion in the Chesapeake region in the 17th century?

Select one of the following:

  • It was the driving force in cultural life

  • It was the point of contention that was pulling Chesapeake society apart

  • It was not as important a force as in New England

  • It thrived because clergymen flocked to the area

Question 20 of 126

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Which of the following statements about Virginia was correct in the 17th century?

Select one of the following:

  • Unlike Massachusetts, it had not established church

  • It was governed by an appointed royal governor and a governor's council and a House of Burgesses elected by landowners

  • By 1640, the great majority of its plantation laborers were African slaves.

  • The indentured servants' chances of upward social mobility improved in the second half of the 1600s

Question 21 of 126

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"These at the heads of the James and York rivers... grew impatient at the many slaughters of their neighbors and rose for own defense, who choosing Mr. Bacon for their leader, sent oftentimes to the Governor... beseeching a commission to go against the Indians at their own charge; which His Honor as often promised, but did not send...
"During these protractions and people often slain, most of all the officers, civil and military... met and concerted together, the danger of going without a commission on the one part and the continual murders of their neighbors on the other part... This day lapsing and no commission come , they marched into the wilderness in quest of these Indians, after whom the Governor sent his proclamation, denouncing all rebels who should not return within a limited day; whereupon those estates obeyed. But Mr. Bacon, with fifty-seven men, proceeded... They fired and... slew 150 Indians."
- Samuel Kercheval, Virginia author and lawyer, "On Bacon's Rebellion in VA," 1833

Based on the information in this excerpt, what is Samuel Kercheval's point of view toward Bacon and his followers

Select one of the following:

  • They were dangerous men who threatened colonial stability and prosperity

  • They were frustrated men who were taking action because the government did not

  • They were allies of the governor who carried out actions that he supported

  • They were a primarily political movement that wanted Bacon to become governor

Question 22 of 126

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"These at the heads of the James and York rivers... grew impatient at the many slaughters of their neighbors and rose for own defense, who choosing Mr. Bacon for their leader, sent oftentimes to the Governor... beseeching a commission to go against the Indians at their own charge; which His Honor as often promised, but did not send...
"During these protractions and people often slain, most of all the officers, civil and military... met and concerted together, the danger of going without a commission on the one part and the continual murders of their neighbors on the other part... This day lapsing and no commission come , they marched into the wilderness in quest of these Indians, after whom the Governor sent his proclamation, denouncing all rebels who should not return within a limited day; whereupon those estates obeyed. But Mr. Bacon, with fifty-seven men, proceeded... They fired and... slew 150 Indians."
- Samuel Kercheval, Virginia author and lawyer, "On Bacon's Rebellion in VA," 1833

Bacon's Rebellion was initiated by a group of farmers who felt most directly threatened by

Select one of the following:

  • An increase in royal taxes

  • The power of large planters

  • Conflicts with American Indians

  • The growth of the slave trade

Question 23 of 126

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"These at the heads of the James and York rivers... grew impatient at the many slaughters of their neighbors and rose for own defense, who choosing Mr. Bacon for their leader, sent oftentimes to the Governor... beseeching a commission to go against the Indians at their own charge; which His Honor as often promised, but did not send...
"During these protractions and people often slain, most of all the officers, civil and military... met and concerted together, the danger of going without a commission on the one part and the continual murders of their neighbors on the other part... This day lapsing and no commission come , they marched into the wilderness in quest of these Indians, after whom the Governor sent his proclamation, denouncing all rebels who should not return within a limited day; whereupon those estates obeyed. But Mr. Bacon, with fifty-seven men, proceeded... They fired and... slew 150 Indians."
- Samuel Kercheval, Virginia author and lawyer, "On Bacon's Rebellion in VA," 1833

Which of the following led the opposition to Bacon's Rebellion?

Select one of the following:

  • Leaders of the Church of England

  • Members of the Virginia House of Burgesses

  • Soldiers from the British army

  • The colonial governor

Question 24 of 126

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Why was France able to hold on to tits vast North American domain against Spanish and English expansion during the 17th century?

Select one of the following:

  • The French maintained a large army in the New World

  • The French constructed fortified missions

  • They established stable communities throughout New France

  • They established good relations with Native Americans through trade

Question 25 of 126

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Which of the following facts characterized life in the Chesapeake region in the early 17th century?

Select one of the following:

  • Settlers had a relatively long life expectancy compared with that in the harsh environment of New England

  • Women had a somewhat greater status because of their scarcity

  • It witnessed rapidly developing urban areas

  • It had a population density that required residents to live in close proximity to neighbors

Question 26 of 126

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How did Bacon's Rebellion transform labor systems in Virginia?

Select one of the following:

  • It influenced planters to abandon indentured servants in favor of slaves

  • It proved that Indians were not a viable source of labor

  • It revealed that planters would have to pay their laborers higher wages

  • It encouraged landowners to pay their laborers higher wages

Question 27 of 126

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"The province of Quivira is 950 leagues from Mexico. Where I reached it, it is in the fortieth degree [of latitude]... I have treated the natives of this province, and all the others whom I found wherever I went as well as possible, agreeably to what Your Majesty has commanded, and they have received no harm on any way from me or from those who went in my company. I remained twenty-five days in this province of Quivira, so as to see and explore the country and Your Majesty, because the guides who had brought me had given me an account of other provinces beyond this. And what I am sure of is that there is not any gold nor any other metal in all that country."
-Francisco Coronado, Spanish Conquistador, Travels in Quivira, c. 1542

Based upon Coronado's observations, which of the following best describes Spanish efforts in Mexico in the mid-16th century?

Select one of the following:

  • Exploring lands new to them

  • Establishing colonies

  • Warring with Native Americans

  • Spreading the Christian faith

Question 28 of 126

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"The province of Quivira is 950 leagues from Mexico. Where I reached it, it is in the fortieth degree [of latitude]... I have treated the natives of this province, and all the others whom I found wherever I went as well as possible, agreeably to what Your Majesty has commanded, and they have received no harm on any way from me or from those who went in my company. I remained twenty-five days in this province of Quivira, so as to see and explore the country and Your Majesty, because the guides who had brought me had given me an account of other provinces beyond this. And what I am sure of is that there is not any gold nor any other metal in all that country."
-Francisco Coronado, Spanish Conquistador, Travels in Quivira, c. 1542

The activities of Coronado and other Spanish Portuguese explorers in the Americas in the 16th century primarily depended on the support of:

Select one of the following:

  • merchants and fur traders

  • the Catholic Church

  • the monarchs

  • enslaved Europeans

Question 29 of 126

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In which European settlement was fur trading with Native Americans (the Huron and other tribes) the primary economic activity?

Select one of the following:

  • New Mexico

  • New France

  • New York

  • Florida

Question 30 of 126

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The great majority of 16th century Europeans were:

Select one of the following:

  • peasants

  • middle class

  • nobles

  • craftsmen/ artisans

Question 31 of 126

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The primary aim of the explorations of Balboa, Magellan, and Cartier was to find a water route through the Americas to reach Asia. They called this non-existent waterway the:

Select one of the following:

  • Panama Canal

  • Middle Passage

  • Continental Divide

  • Northwest Passage

Question 32 of 126

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New Technology in the production of which commodity had the most to do with stimulating the African slave trade in the 1500s.

Select one of the following:

  • Sugar

  • Tobacco

  • Gold

  • Indigo

Question 33 of 126

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All of the following statements about English Puritans are correct, except

Select one of the following:

  • They were Calvinists

  • They rejected the doctrine of presdestination

  • They rejected bishops and a church hierarchy

  • Their beliefs appealed to many small farmers, merchants, shopkeepers, and artisans.

Question 34 of 126

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The first English colony to create a separation between Church and State, as well as promote religious tolerance was:

Select one of the following:

  • Maryland

  • Massachusetts

  • Rhode Island

  • Virginia

Question 35 of 126

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Due to the fact that 2nd and 3rd generation Puritans didn't want to testify about their conversion experience to obtain membership in the Church, the church leaders created this "loophole" to allow their children access to church membership. This "loophole" was called:

Select one of the following:

  • the New England Way

  • the Halfway Covenant

  • the Path of Least Resistance

  • the Noble Truth

Question 36 of 126

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"As touching the quality of this country, three thinges there bee which in fewe years may bring this Colony to perfection; the English plough, Vineyards, and Cattle...All our riches for the present do consist in Tobacco wherein one man by his own labour hath in one year raised; to himself to the value of £200 sterling; and another by the means of six servants hath cleared at one crop a thousand pound [£] English. These be true, yet indeed rare examples, yet possible to be done by others. Our principal wealth (I should have said) consisteth in servants: But they are chargeable to be furnished with arms, apparel and bedding and for their transportation and casual [contingent expenses], both at sea, and for their first year commonly at land also: But if they escape, they prove very hardy, and sound able men."
- John Porty, Secretary of Virginia, Letter to Sir Dudley Carlton, 1619

What did Pory predict for the future of Virginia?

Select one of the following:

  • It would approach 'perfection' because of agricultural products

  • It would prosper by selling "armes, apparel, and bedding"

  • It would decline if its "riches" continued to "consiste in Tobacco"

  • It would collapse unless it found laborers who were "very hardy"

Question 37 of 126

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"As touching the quality of this country, three thinges there bee which in fewe years may bring this Colony to perfection; the English plough, Vineyards, and Cattle...All our riches for the present do consist in Tobacco wherein one man by his own labour hath in one year raised; to himself to the value of £200 sterling; and another by the means of six servants hath cleared at one crop a thousand pound [£] English. These be true, yet indeed rare examples, yet possible to be done by others. Our principal wealth (I should have said) consisteth in servants: But they are chargeable to be furnished with arms, apparel and bedding and for their transportation and casual [contingent expenses], both at sea, and for their first year commonly at land also: But if they escape, they prove very hardy, and sound able men."
- John Porty, Secretary of Virginia, Letter to Sir Dudley Carlton, 1619

Which of the following groups made up most of the servants referred to in the passage?

Select one of the following:

  • American Indians

  • Indentured servants from Europe

  • Enslaved Africans

  • Women whose husbands had escaped

Question 38 of 126

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Until the mid-1700s, England paid little attention to its North American colonies because:

Select one of the following:

  • Of distracting political and military problems within the British Empire

  • The colonists always favored British trade laws

  • England intended to give the colonies their independence

  • England had little need for the raw materials in the colonies

Question 39 of 126

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The goal of the British Navigation Acts was to help

Select one of the following:

  • Ships avoid dangerous waters

  • The American colonies trade with France

  • The Indians develop trade

  • Control American colonial trade to benefit mercantilism

Question 40 of 126

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Which of the following was a significant result of England's Glorious Revolution of 1688?

Select one of the following:

  • It drove the French out of North America

  • It established a new era of "limited monarchy" as the government in England

  • It established the supremacy of the English monarchy

  • It brought Oliver Cromwell to power

Question 41 of 126

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What happened as a result of the Stono Rebellion?

Select one of the following:

  • South Carolina planters engineered a series of reforms that helped create a more open equal society

  • The King of England took direct control by ending property rule and transforming North and South Carolina into royal colonies

  • The South Carolina legislature established a hard new code to keep slaves under constant surveillance and ensure that masters disciplined their slaves

  • The last vestiges of Native American resistance to white expansion in the South were eliminated

Question 42 of 126

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Which statement does not accurately describe George Whitefield?

Select one of the following:

  • He claimed that minsters were in reality unsaved

  • He challenged the movement of Protestantism away from its roots in the teachings of Martin Luther

  • He had a running feud with the Church of England's representatives in the colonies

  • He was considered one of the greatest speakers in favor of a revival of religious piety in the 18th century

Question 43 of 126

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What was mercantilism?

Select one of the following:

  • It was an economic theory carefully elaborated by Adam Smith in The Wealth of Nations

  • It was a government policy aimed at achieving national economic self-sufficiency

  • It was a colonial American policy of trading primarily with England to strengthen political and economic ties

  • It was a theory of business organizations in which merchants formed joint-stock companies to pool their capital

Question 44 of 126

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"To understand political power... we must consider what estate all men are naturally in, and that it is a state of perfect freedom to order their actions and dispose of their possessions... within the bounds of the law of nature, without asking leave, or depending upon the will of any other man...
Whosoever therefore out of a state of nature unite into community must be understood to give up all the power necessary to the ends for which they unite into society, to the majority of the community... And this is done by barely agreeing to unite into one political society.. And thus that which begins and actually constitutes any political society is nothing but the consent of any number of freeman capable of a majority to unite... And this is that.. which did or could give beginning to any lawful government in the world."
-John Locke, Second Treatise of Government, 1960

Which of the following did Locke see as the original limit on human freedom?

Select one of the following:

  • Royal Law

  • Constitutional Law

  • Church Law

  • Law of Nature

Question 45 of 126

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"To understand political power... we must consider what estate all men are naturally in, and that it is a state of perfect freedom to order their actions and dispose of their possessions... within the bounds of the law of nature, without asking leave, or depending upon the will of any other man...
Whosoever therefore out of a state of nature unite into community must be understood to give up all the power necessary to the ends for which they unite into society, to the majority of the community... And this is done by barely agreeing to unite into one political society.. And thus that which begins and actually constitutes any political society is nothing but the consent of any number of freeman capable of a majority to unite... And this is that.. which did or could give beginning to any lawful government in the world."
-John Locke, Second Treatise of Government, 1960

Locke believed that political society was based on

Select one of the following:

  • agreement of a majority

  • traditional community values

  • royal authority

  • unanimous consent

Question 46 of 126

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"To understand political power... we must consider what estate all men are naturally in, and that it is a state of perfect freedom to order their actions and dispose of their possessions... within the bounds of the law of nature, without asking leave, or depending upon the will of any other man...
Whosoever therefore out of a state of nature unite into community must be understood to give up all the power necessary to the ends for which they unite into society, to the majority of the community... And this is done by barely agreeing to unite into one political society.. And thus that which begins and actually constitutes any political society is nothing but the consent of any number of freeman capable of a majority to unite... And this is that.. which did or could give beginning to any lawful government in the world."
-John Locke, Second Treatise of Government, 1960

Which of the following groups in the colonies in the late 17th century would be most critical of Locke's ideas?

Select one of the following:

  • Slave owners

  • Church leaders

  • Merchants

  • Women

Question 47 of 126

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What did the Navigation Acts do?

Select one of the following:

  • They prohibited colonists from engaging in overseas commerce

  • They limited the goods that could be manufactured and traded within the colonies

  • The forced American ships to carry English goods at no cost

  • They required most colonial trade to go through England and be transported on English ships

Question 48 of 126

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To which branch of the government did the colonial gentry turn to defend their own interests?

Select one of the following:

  • The crown (King/Queen) in London

  • The lower house of the legislature

  • The judiciary

  • The upper house of the legislature

Question 49 of 126

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"For a nation thus abused to arise unanimously and to resist their prince, even to dethroning him, is not criminal but a reasonable way of vindicating their liberties and just rights; it is making use of the means, and the only means, which God has out into their power for mutual and self-defense...
To conclude, let us all learn to be free and to be loyal... But let us remember... government is sacred and not to be trifled with. It is our happiness to live under the government of a prince who is satisfied with ruling according to law... Let us prize our freedom but not use our liberty for a cloak of maliciousness. There are men who strike at liberty under the term licentiousness. There are others who aim at a popularity under the disguise of patriotism. Be aware of both. Extremes are dangerous."
-Jonathon Mayhew, church minister, "On Unlimited Submission to Rulers" 1750

According to Mayhew, the power of the people to oppose the government comes from:

Select one of the following:

  • The king

  • Th church

  • Nature

  • God

Question 50 of 126

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"For a nation thus abused to arise unanimously and to resist their prince, even to dethroning him, is not criminal but a reasonable way of vindicating their liberties and just rights; it is making use of the means, and the only means, which God has out into their power for mutual and self-defense...
To conclude, let us all learn to be free and to be loyal... But let us remember... government is sacred and not to be trifled with. It is our happiness to live under the government of a prince who is satisfied with ruling according to law... Let us prize our freedom but not use our liberty for a cloak of maliciousness. There are men who strike at liberty under the term licentiousness. There are others who aim at a popularity under the disguise of patriotism. Be aware of both. Extremes are dangerous."
-Jonathon Mayhew, church minister, "On Unlimited Submission to Rulers" 1750

Which of the following must be maintained by the people, according to Mayhew?

Select one of the following:

  • Government

  • Royal Authority

  • Right to vote

  • Colonies

Question 51 of 126

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"For a nation thus abused to arise unanimously and to resist their prince, even to dethroning him, is not criminal but a reasonable way of vindicating their liberties and just rights; it is making use of the means, and the only means, which God has out into their power for mutual and self-defense...
To conclude, let us all learn to be free and to be loyal... But let us remember... government is sacred and not to be trifled with. It is our happiness to live under the government of a prince who is satisfied with ruling according to law... Let us prize our freedom but not use our liberty for a cloak of maliciousness. There are men who strike at liberty under the term licentiousness. There are others who aim at a popularity under the disguise of patriotism. Be aware of both. Extremes are dangerous."
-Jonathon Mayhew, church minister, "On Unlimited Submission to Rulers" 1750

Mayhew considers the greatest threat to liberty is:

Select one of the following:

  • hidden anger

  • religious faith

  • radical positions

  • trust in authority

Question 52 of 126

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"For a nation thus abused to arise unanimously and to resist their prince, even to dethroning him, is not criminal but a reasonable way of vindicating their liberties and just rights; it is making use of the means, and the only means, which God has out into their power for mutual and self-defense...
To conclude, let us all learn to be free and to be loyal... But let us remember... government is sacred and not to be trifled with. It is our happiness to live under the government of a prince who is satisfied with ruling according to law... Let us prize our freedom but not use our liberty for a cloak of maliciousness. There are men who strike at liberty under the term licentiousness. There are others who aim at a popularity under the disguise of patriotism. Be aware of both. Extremes are dangerous."
-Jonathon Mayhew, church minister, "On Unlimited Submission to Rulers" 1750

What was the context in which Mayhew was writing?

Select one of the following:

  • Democratic practices were slowly increasing

  • Opposition to British rule of the colonies was increasing

  • The Great Awakening was making authorities stronger

  • Restrictions on voting were becoming tighter

Question 53 of 126

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What did the Proclamation of 1763 and the Quebec Act of 1774 have in common?

Select one of the following:

  • They both interfered with colonial claims to western lands

  • They both extended religious freedom to Catholics

  • They both were repealed after colonial protests

  • They both imposed new taxes on goods imported from Europe

Question 54 of 126

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Why is Sam Adams significant to the development of revolutionary thought?

Select one of the following:

  • He argued that the colonists must resort to violence to drive the British out of the New World

  • He wrote Common Sense, which claimed King George III was ruling illegally

  • He stressed that Parliament had every right to pass legislation applying to the colonies

  • He encouraged Massachusetts's towns to form committees of correspondence to defend colonial rights

Question 55 of 126

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How did the colonists attempt to reconcile with England in 1775?

Select one of the following:

  • They sent Thomas Jefferson and Ben Franklin to London to express their grievances

  • They presented the Olive Branch Petition to King George III to show their concerns

  • They offered to pay for the tea dumped in Boston Harbor if the British Army was withdrawn

  • They agreed to accept all of Parliament's demands for lifting the Intolerable Acts

Question 56 of 126

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How did William Pitt plan to encourage the Americans to assume the military burden in the Seven Years'/ French and Indian War in North America?

Select one of the following:

  • He promised to open the lands west of the Appalachian Mountains to settlement

  • He hinted broadly at increased colonial self-government in the postwar world

  • He promised that if the colonies raised the necessary men, Parliament would bear the financial burden

  • He guaranteed lower tariffs and internal taxes in the postwar era

Question 57 of 126

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How did a writ of assistance work?

Select one of the following:

  • It helped colonial merchants cut through the red tape of imperial trade regulations

  • It allowed the British to search a colonial merchant's house when looking for illegally smuggled goods

  • It required that specified colonial products be landed in Britain before being shipped to other countries

  • It required that colonial commerce agents provide subsidies to merchants engaged in trade outside the British Empire

Question 58 of 126

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Which of the following statements represents the conception most American colonists held of parliamentary power in the 1760s?

Select one of the following:

  • Parliament had limited powers of legislation that included authority to regulate imperial trade but excluded the authority to tax the colonists

  • Parliament represented all citizens of the empire and therefore had the authority to legislate on all matters relevant to American colonists.

  • Parliament included no Americans among its members and therefore had not authority to interfere with colonial trade

  • Because Parliament was made up of corrupt politicians who represented only large landholders, parliamentary law had no authority in the North American colonies

Question 59 of 126

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What was the purpose of the 1764 Sugar Act?

Select one of the following:

  • It was designed to raise revenue to offset British military expenses in North America

  • It was designed to provide King George III with the necessary resources to maintain his opulent lifestyle

  • It was designed to increase the consumption of sugar in the colonies by reducing its price

  • It was designed to eliminate French involvement in the sugar trade

Question 60 of 126

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How did Americans oppose the Stamp Act?

Select one of the following:

  • They created a congress that advocated independence from Great Britain

  • Prominent women led a widespread boycott of stamps

  • Americans damaged and destroyed property

  • Gangs of sailors tarred and feathered stamp distributors

Question 61 of 126

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How did the British government react to the colonial opposition to the Stamp Act?

Select one of the following:

  • It revoked the act and slowly began to return its colonial policies to those of salutary neglect

  • It concluded that the colonies were incapable of cooperating and that the next phase of imperial restructuring should begin

  • It imposed martial law on the colonies and revoked all civil liberties

  • It revoked the act but reaffirmed parliamentary power to legislate for the colonies in all cases

Question 62 of 126

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What was the principle of virtual representation?

Select one of the following:

  • Every person should vote on each issue

  • Every male should be able to select a representative to represent his interests in Parliament

  • Everyone had representation because the king was a representative of all the people

  • Members of Parliament represented everyone because they considered the welfare of all subjects when deciding issues

Question 63 of 126

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" We apprehend that a freeman and English subjects, we have indisputable title to the same privileges and immunities with His Majesty's other subjects to reside in the interior counties... and therefore ought not to be excluded from an equal share with them in the very important privilege of legislation... We cannot but observe with sorrow and indignation that some persons in this province are at pains to extenuate the barbarous cruelties practiced by these savages and our murdered brethren and relatives... by means the Indians have been thought to despise us as a weak and disunited people, and from the fatal source have arisen many of our calamities... We humbly pray therefore that this grievance may be redressed."
The Paxton Boys, to the Pennsylvania Assembly, " A Remonstrance of Distressed and Bleeding Frontier Inhabitants" 1764

The basic concern voiced in the above excerpt is switch the conduct of which of the following?

Select one of the following:

  • Religious Leaders

  • American Indians

  • Royal Government

  • Colonial Government

Question 64 of 126

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" We apprehend that a freeman and English subjects, we have indisputable title to the same privileges and immunities with His Majesty's other subjects to reside in the interior counties... and therefore ought not to be excluded from an equal share with them in the very important privilege of legislation... We cannot but observe with sorrow and indignation that some persons in this province are at pains to extenuate the barbarous cruelties practiced by these savages and our murdered brethren and relatives... by means the Indians have been thought to despise us as a weak and disunited people, and from the fatal source have arisen many of our calamities... We humbly pray therefore that this grievance may be redressed."
The Paxton Boys, to the Pennsylvania Assembly, " A Remonstrance of Distressed and Bleeding Frontier Inhabitants" 1764

The concern expressed in the excerpt helps explain why the British passed (?)

Select one of the following:

  • The Treaty of Paris of 1763

  • Proclamation of 1763

  • Quartering Act of 1766

  • Port Act of 1774

Question 65 of 126

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" We apprehend that a freeman and English subjects, we have indisputable title to the same privileges and immunities with His Majesty's other subjects to reside in the interior counties... and therefore ought not to be excluded from an equal share with them in the very important privilege of legislation... We cannot but observe with sorrow and indignation that some persons in this province are at pains to extenuate the barbarous cruelties practiced by these savages and our murdered brethren and relatives... by means the Indians have been thought to despise us as a weak and disunited people, and from the fatal source have arisen many of our calamities... We humbly pray therefore that this grievance may be redressed."
The Paxton Boys, to the Pennsylvania Assembly, " A Remonstrance of Distressed and Bleeding Frontier Inhabitants" 1764

Which of the following leaders from an earlier period represented a group in a similar situation as cited in this except?

Select one of the following:

  • Edmond Andros

  • Nathaniel Bacon

  • John Smith

  • Roger Williams

Question 66 of 126

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What agreement did the delegates of the Stamp Act Congress reach?

Select one of the following:

  • They agreed that the colonials should declare their independence if Parliament did not repeal the Stamp Act

  • They agreed that Parliament did not have the right to levy taxes outside of Great Britain

  • They agreed to send delegates to London to petition for recognition as the colonies true legislature

  • They agreed to accept the Stamp Act if Parliament offered membership to American representatives

Question 67 of 126

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Which of the following occurred last?

Select one of the following:

  • Townshend Duties

  • Tea Act

  • Battle of Concord

  • First Continental Congress

Question 68 of 126

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" It is inseparably essential to the freedom of a People, and the undoubted Right of Englishmen, that no taxes be imposed on them, but with their own consent, given personally, or by representatives... That it is he indispensable duty of these colonies, to the best of sovereigns... to procure the repeal of the act for granting and applying certain stamp duties, of all clauses of any other acts of Parliament... for the restriction of American commerce".
Resolution of the Stamp Act Congress, 1765

The resolution of the Stamp Act congress expressed respect for which person or group?

Select one of the following:

  • Colonial Merchants

  • The King

  • Leaders of Parliament

  • Residents of England

Question 69 of 126

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" It is inseparably essential to the freedom of a People, and the undoubted Right of Englishmen, that no taxes be imposed on them, but with their own consent, given personally, or by representatives... That it is he indispensable duty of these colonies, to the best of sovereigns... to procure the repeal of the act for granting and applying certain stamp duties, of all clauses of any other acts of Parliament... for the restriction of American commerce".
Resolution of the Stamp Act Congress, 1765

For the first time, the Stamp Act placed on the colonies a tax that was (?)

Select one of the following:

  • indirect

  • direct

  • to regulate trade

  • to support the church

Question 70 of 126

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" It is inseparably essential to the freedom of a People, and the undoubted Right of Englishmen, that no taxes be imposed on them, but with their own consent, given personally, or by representatives... That it is he indispensable duty of these colonies, to the best of sovereigns... to procure the repeal of the act for granting and applying certain stamp duties, of all clauses of any other acts of Parliament... for the restriction of American commerce".
Resolution of the Stamp Act Congress, 1765

Which of the following was a direct British response to the colonial views expressed by the Stamp Act congress?

Select one of the following:

  • Quartering Act

  • Sugar Act

  • Coercive Act

  • Declaratory Act

Question 71 of 126

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Events in the late 1760's and early 1770s helped to bring about a new consensus in he colonies. What was it?

Select one of the following:

  • The government could not tax the colonies because they were not represented by Parliament

  • The British constitution could be altered by the passage of new laws.

  • Parliament had no lawmaking authority over the colonies except for the right to regulate imperial commerce

  • The American colonies would be free from tyranny only when they were independent from British rule

Question 72 of 126

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In the Declaration of Independence, where did Thomas Jefferson place he blame for the problems between the colonies and Great Britain?

Select one of the following:

  • Parliament, because of the oppressive legislation that it had passed over the previous ten years

  • King George III, because of the crowns apparent intention to establish despotism

  • The kink's ministers, because they had refused to compromise and had turned the king and Parliament against the colonists.

  • British Merchants, because their drive for personal profits had caused them to ignore the greater good of the empire.

Question 73 of 126

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" The unhappy dispute between Great Britain and her American Colonies... have preceded to lengths so dangerous and alarming as to excite just apprehensions in the minds of His Majesty's faithful subjects of the colonies... It cannot admit of a doubt but that British subjects in America are entitled to the same right and privileges as their fellow subjects posses in Britain and therefore that the power assumed by the British parliament to bind America by their statutes in all cases whatsoever is unconstitutional and the source of these unhappy differences... To obtain a redress of these grievances without which the people of America can neither be safe free, nor happy they are willing to undergo the great inconvenience that will be derived to them from stopping all imports whatsoever from Great Britain
Instructions to the Virginia Delegates to the first continental congress, Williams-burg 1774

To change the British policy, the colonist felt that the most effective way was to?

Select one of the following:

  • Begin an armed revolution

  • Boycott trade with Great Britain

  • Send a petition to the king

  • Participate in free elections

Question 74 of 126

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" The unhappy dispute between Great Britain and her American Colonies... have preceded to lengths so dangerous and alarming as to excite just apprehensions in the minds of His Majesty's faithful subjects of the colonies... It cannot admit of a doubt but that British subjects in America are entitled to the same right and privileges as their fellow subjects posses in Britain and therefore that the power assumed by the British parliament to bind America by their statutes in all cases whatsoever is unconstitutional and the source of these unhappy differences... To obtain a redress of these grievances without which the people of America can neither be safe free, nor happy they are willing to undergo the great inconvenience that will be derived to them from stopping all imports whatsoever from Great Britain
Instructions to the Virginia Delegates to the first continental congress, Williams-burg 1774

Which of the following is the underlying goal of the colonists in the excerpt?

Select one of the following:

  • Win political representation

  • Declare Independence

  • Promote free trade

  • Reduce the overall level of taxes

Question 75 of 126

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What generally happened when the British evacuated areas they had previously occupied such as New Jersey, Georgia, or the Carolinas?

Select one of the following:

  • Local loyalists formed secret organizations to continue the guerrilla war against the rebels

  • Slave uprisings occurred

  • State governments deported anyone shown to have assisted the redcoats during the occupation

  • State militias ruthlessly pursued loyalists, forced many to flee, and coerced most into renouncing the crown

Question 76 of 126

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How were blacks accounted for in the Three Fifths compromise?

Select one of the following:

  • Free blacks gained citizenship and given the right to vote

  • Each state would have 2 black representatives to the Senate

  • Slaves counted as three fifths of a person for tax and representation purposes

  • The national government would have the power to abolish the slave trade at any time

Question 77 of 126

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Which of the following conditions was NOT true of the state constitutions adopted during the Revolution?

Select one of the following:

  • They concentrated power in the popularly elected legislatures

  • They all contained the bill of rights

  • They provided for weak executives and frequent elections

  • They abolished slavery and tax paying qualifications for voting

Question 78 of 126

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Which of the following is true of the Northwest Ordinance of 1787?

Select one of the following:

  • It forbade slavery in the Northwest Territory

  • It permitted the citizens of a territory to write a state constitution and apply to Congress for admission as a state

  • It outlined the steps for the creation and admission of new states

  • All of the above

Question 79 of 126

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What is the name of the relationship that the constitution established between the national and state governments?

Select one of the following:

  • Bicameralism

  • Virtual Representation

  • Federalism

  • Localism

Question 80 of 126

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Which of the following most accurately describes the situation of Native Americans in the 1770s and 1780s?

Select one of the following:

  • As a result of the Treaty of Paris, they expected that their traditional rights would be protected and that their territorial claims would be dealt with justly by the United States

  • They remained stubbornly rooted in their traditional ways, resisting participation in a larger world dominated by Europeans or white Americans

  • They fled their native lands, first the English colonies and then the United States, for the more hospitable political and social environment to be found in Spanish territory

  • They continued to incorporate the most useful aspects of European culture into their own, combining elements of the old and new

Question 81 of 126

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Who took the lead in establishing the Washington administration's domestic policies?

Select one of the following:

  • Alexander Hamilton

  • John Marshall

  • Thomas Jefferson

  • John Adams

Question 82 of 126

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Which of the following did the Bill of Rights NOT do?

Select one of the following:

  • It protected citizens from the tyranny of standing armies

  • It prohibited cruel and unusual punishments

  • It specified explicit limits on federal power

  • It reserved to the people or the states powers not allocated to the federal government

Question 83 of 126

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What did George Washington argue in his farewell address?

Select one of the following:

  • The United States should maintain a close alliance with Great Britain

  • The United States should avoid foreign entanglements

  • The United States should act as an impartial arbitrator in international disputes

  • The United States should maintain a large standing army

Question 84 of 126

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Why are the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions so significant to American History?

Select one of the following:

  • They established the precedent that states had the right to secede from the Union

  • They showed the resolve of southern states to resist the elimination of slavery

  • They forced Federalists to recognize the importance of including a bill of rights in the constitution

  • They made the claim that a state had the right to nullify a federal law it deemed unconstitutional

Question 85 of 126

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"It is not denied, that there are implied, as well as express powers, and that the former are as effectually delegated as the latter.
It is conceded, that implied powers are to be considered as delegated equally with express ones.
"Then it follows, that as a power of erecting a corporation may as well be implied as any other thing; it may as well be employed as an instrument or means of carrying into execution any of the specified powers...But one may be erected in relation to the collection of taxes, or to the trade with foreign countries, or to the trade between the States...because it is the province of the federal government to regulate those objects and because it is incident to a general sovereign or legislative power to regulate a thing, to employ all the means which relate to its regulation to the best and greatest advantage."
-Alexander Hamilton, Constitutionality of the Bank of the United States, 1791

Hamilton's constitutional argument was based on which of the following types of powers?

Select one of the following:

  • Employed

  • Expressed

  • Implied

  • Regulated

Question 86 of 126

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"It is not denied, that there are implied, as well as express powers, and that the former are as effectually delegated as the latter.
It is conceded, that implied powers are to be considered as delegated equally with express ones.
"Then it follows, that as a power of erecting a corporation may as well be implied as any other thing; it may as well be employed as an instrument or means of carrying into execution any of the specified powers...But one may be erected in relation to the collection of taxes, or to the trade with foreign countries, or to the trade between the States...because it is the province of the federal government to regulate those objects and because it is incident to a general sovereign or legislative power to regulate a thing, to employ all the means which relate to its regulation to the best and greatest advantage."
-Alexander Hamilton, Constitutionality of the Bank of the United States, 1791

Which of the following benefited most directly from the bank that Hamilton strongly supported?

Select one of the following:

  • Manufacturers

  • Farmers

  • State Governments

  • Slave Owners

Question 87 of 126

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"It is not denied, that there are implied, as well as express powers, and that the former are as effectually delegated as the latter.
It is conceded, that implied powers are to be considered as delegated equally with express ones.
"Then it follows, that as a power of erecting a corporation may as well be implied as any other thing; it may as well be employed as an instrument or means of carrying into execution any of the specified powers...But one may be erected in relation to the collection of taxes, or to the trade with foreign countries, or to the trade between the States...because it is the province of the federal government to regulate those objects and because it is incident to a general sovereign or legislative power to regulate a thing, to employ all the means which relate to its regulation to the best and greatest advantage."
-Alexander Hamilton, Constitutionality of the Bank of the United States, 1791

Who of the following would be most critical of Hamilton's position on the bank?

Select one of the following:

  • George Washington

  • John Adams

  • Thomas Jefferson

  • John Jay

Question 88 of 126

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The Whiskey Rebellion demonstrated that

Select one of the following:

  • Americans faced a serious challenge from alcoholism

  • The young government had still not become strong enough to enforce the laws

  • Dissent could be expressed only through the constitutional system of laws and elections, not through armed rebellion

  • Sectionalism was stronger than nationalism

Question 89 of 126

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Which of the following accurately describes American opinion regarding the Anglo-French struggle after the French Revolution?

Select one of the following:

  • New Englanders favored Britain because they believed that good relations with the British were essential to the region's prosperity

  • Southerners favored Britain because they believed that the British offered the best potential market for southern agricultural products

  • Almost all Americans applauded the struggle because they hoped that the two nations would knock each other out and leave the United States as the premier nation in the Atlantic world

  • New Englanders favored France because the alliance signed during the American Revolution and because of their desire to see the French humiliate King George II

Question 90 of 126

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What basic belief did Hamilton's domestic program reflect?

Select one of the following:

  • The survival of the federal government depended on the republican virtues of the common people

  • The national government had to maintain authority over the states

  • America's best opportunity for the economic survival lay in its traditional source of strength, agriculture

  • The nation would be economically strong if it forged close trading ties with both Britain and France

Question 91 of 126

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Why did southern states vote for Hamilton's plan to assume state debts?

Select one of the following:

  • Most of them had been unable to pay off their debts and stood to gain from federal assumption of that debt

  • Most southern senators and congressmen had speculated in state bonds and would make large profits if they were repaid in full by the federal government

  • Southerners believed that a strong union would benefit the South more than other sections of the nation

  • Northern representatives agreed to transfer the federal capital from Philadelphia to a location on the Potomac River in Virginia

Question 92 of 126

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Which issue led to the development of political coalitions during Washington's first term?

Select one of the following:

  • Hamilton's financial program

  • The creation of the federal court system

  • Interference with American shipping by France and Britain

  • The disputed election of 1792

Question 93 of 126

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How did the United States government respond to France's declaration of war on Britain in 1793?

Select one of the following:

  • It declared war against France

  • It proclaimed neutrality

  • It reaffirmed the 1778 Franco-American alliance

  • It seized the western forts occupied by Britain

Question 94 of 126

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Which of the following was one of the accomplishments of Jay's Treaty?

Select one of the following:

  • It ended the British practice of impressment

  • It arranged for the withdrawal of British troops from American soil

  • It won recognition of the 31st parallel as the United States southern boundary

  • It settled the issue of compensation for slaves taken during the Revolution

Question 95 of 126

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What was the central charge that Republicans aimed at Federalists during the late 1790s?

Select one of the following:

  • That the Federalists had become a faction bent on enriching wealthy citizens at the taxpayer's expense

  • That they were free-thinking liberals who planned to eliminate religion from the United States

  • That they were plotting a reign of terror and wished to turn the nation over to the French

  • That they were too local on their outlook and changing times needed an international perspective

Question 96 of 126

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What was the XYZ Affair?

Select one of the following:

  • An incident where a British ship attacked an American naval vessel without warning

  • An effort by the French to get the United States to pay a bribe before they would negotiate a treaty

  • An attempt by Thomas Jefferson to persuade undecided electors to vote for him

  • The first scandal in American presidential history, where George Washington was caught cheating on income taxes

Question 97 of 126

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"Friends and Fellow Citizens: I should now apprise you of the resolution I have formed to decline being considered among the number of those out of whom a choice is to be made...
"I have already intimated to you the danger of parties... with particular reference to... geographical discriminations...
"Let it simply be asked- where is the security for property, for reputation, for life, if the sense of religious obligation desert the oaths...
"As a very important source of strength and security, cherish public credit... avoiding likewise the accumulation of debt... which unavoidable wars may have occasioned... in mind that toward the payment of debt there must be..taxes...
"By interweaving our destiny with that of any part of Europe, [we] entangle our peace and prosperity in the toils of European ambition, rivalship, interest, humor, or caprice... If our true policy to steer clear of permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign world."
-George Washington, Farewell Address, 1796

One of the strong reasons Washington and others warned against political parties was a concern about...

Select one of the following:

  • Damages to the national reputation

  • Divisive sectionalism

  • Rights of property owners

  • Unavoidable wars

Question 98 of 126

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"Friends and Fellow Citizens: I should now apprise you of the resolution I have formed to decline being considered among the number of those out of whom a choice is to be made...
"I have already intimated to you the danger of parties... with particular reference to... geographical discriminations...
"Let it simply be asked- where is the security for property, for reputation, for life, if the sense of religious obligation desert the oaths...
"As a very important source of strength and security, cherish public credit... avoiding likewise the accumulation of debt... which unavoidable wars may have occasioned... in mind that toward the payment of debt there must be..taxes...
"By interweaving our destiny with that of any part of Europe, [we] entangle our peace and prosperity in the toils of European ambition, rivalship, interest, humor, or caprice... If our true policy to steer clear of permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign world."
-George Washington, Farewell Address, 1796

Which of the following did Washington believe was very important for the United States to avoid?

Select one of the following:

  • Excess of patriotism

  • Foreign alliances

  • Raising taxes

  • Religious obligations

Question 99 of 126

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Why did Thomas Jefferson favor the sovereignty of state government over the federal government?

Select one of the following:

  • He wanted the states to be free to build new cities

  • He believed that state government was more responsive to popular will

  • He feared that the federal government would provide financial assistance to manufacturers, leaving the states to subsidize family farms

  • He believed the federal government was not yet strong enough

Question 100 of 126

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The purpose of the Adams-Onis (Transcontinental) Treaty was to settle border disputes between the United States and...

Select one of the following:

  • Great Britain

  • France

  • Spain

  • Russia

Question 101 of 126

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How did President Jefferson plan to reverse what he perceived to be a drift toward despotism that had occurred in the 1790s?

Select one of the following:

  • He planned to eliminate the national debt, thereby reducing the need for taxes

  • He planned to destroy the opposition Federalist Party

  • He planned to acquire additional territory that could help to bolster American Freedom

  • He planned to strengthen the army to stand guard against tyrants

Question 102 of 126

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The 1823 Monroe Doctrine argued that European Countries

Select one of the following:

  • could no longer establish new colonies in the Western Hemisphere

  • had to withdraw from their colonies in the Western Hemipshere

  • should sell their colonies in the Western Hemisphere to the United States

  • Needed to focus their colonial ambitions on Asia

Question 103 of 126

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"Resolved, That the several States composing, the United States of America, are not united on the principle of unlimited submission to their general government; but that, by a compact under the style and title of a Constitution for the United States, and of amendments thereto, they constituted a general government for special purposes — delegated to that government certain definite powers, reserving, each State to itself, the residuary mass of right to their own self-government; and that whensoever the general government assumes undelegated powers, its acts are unauthoritative, void, and of no force...
"That this would be to surrender the form of government we have chosen, and live under one deriving its powers from its own will, and not from our authority; and that the co-States, recurring to their natural right in cases not made federal, will concur in declaring these acts void, and of no force."
-Thomas Jefferson (anonymously), Kentucky Resolutions, November 16th, 1798

The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions were issued in reaction to the:

Select one of the following:

  • Ratification of the Bill of Rights

  • Passage of the Alien and Sedition Acts

  • The revelations about the XYZ affair

  • The declaration of the Proclamation of Neutrality

Question 104 of 126

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"Resolved, That the several States composing, the United States of America, are not united on the principle of unlimited submission to their general government; but that, by a compact under the style and title of a Constitution for the United States, and of amendments thereto, they constituted a general government for special purposes — delegated to that government certain definite powers, reserving, each State to itself, the residuary mass of right to their own self-government; and that whensoever the general government assumes undelegated powers, its acts are unauthoritative, void, and of no force...
"That this would be to surrender the form of government we have chosen, and live under one deriving its powers from its own will, and not from our authority; and that the co-States, recurring to their natural right in cases not made federal, will concur in declaring these acts void, and of no force."
-Thomas Jefferson (anonymously), Kentucky Resolutions, November 16th, 1798

According to the passage, the final decision on whether a federal law or action was legal should be made by:

Select one of the following:

  • Congress

  • The President

  • The Supreme Court

  • Each state

Question 105 of 126

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"Resolved, That the several States composing, the United States of America, are not united on the principle of unlimited submission to their general government; but that, by a compact under the style and title of a Constitution for the United States, and of amendments thereto, they constituted a general government for special purposes — delegated to that government certain definite powers, reserving, each State to itself, the residuary mass of right to their own self-government; and that whensoever the general government assumes undelegated powers, its acts are unauthoritative, void, and of no force...
"That this would be to surrender the form of government we have chosen, and live under one deriving its powers from its own will, and not from our authority; and that the co-States, recurring to their natural right in cases not made federal, will concur in declaring these acts void, and of no force."
-Thomas Jefferson (anonymously), Kentucky Resolutions, November 16th, 1798

Which individual or group among the following would be the strongest supporter of the Kentucky Resolution?

Select one of the following:

  • John Adams

  • The Democratic-Republicans

  • Federalists

  • Alexander Hamilton

Question 106 of 126

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"I am ready to allow, Mr. President, that both Great Britain and France have given us abundant cause for war... My plan would be, and my first wish is, to prepare for it to put the country in complete armor- in the attitude imperiously demanded in a crisis of war, and to which it must be brought before any war can be effective... I must call on every member of this Senate to pause before he leaps into or crosses the Rubicon- declaring war is passing the Rubicon in reality."
- Senator Obadian German of New York, speech in the Senate, June 1812

Based on the tone of the excerpt, which of the statements below best expresses German's position on declaring war in June of 1812?

Select one of the following:

  • He opposed going to war because he did not believe the country was prepared for one

  • He opposed the war because he though people did not have the right attitude about fighting

  • He supported going to war immediately against both Great Britain and France

  • He supported the war to prevent British troops from Canada invading New York and other northern states

Question 107 of 126

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"I am ready to allow, Mr. President, that both Great Britain and France have given us abundant cause for war... My plan would be, and my first wish is, to prepare for it= to put the country in complete armor- in the attitude imperiously demanded in a crisis of war, and to which it must be brought before any war can be effective... I must call on every member of this Senate to pause before he leaps into or crosses the Rubicon- declaring war is passing the Rubicon in reality."
- Senator Obadian German of New York, speech in the Senate, June 1812

Who of the following would be most likely to agree with German's position on the war?

Select one of the following:

  • John Calhoun and other politicians from the South

  • Henry Clay and other politicians from the West

  • James Madison and other politicians from the executive branch

  • Merchants from New England

Question 108 of 126

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"I am ready to allow, Mr. President, that both Great Britain and France have given us abundant cause for war... My plan would be, and my first wish is, to prepare for it= to put the country in complete armor- in the attitude imperiously demanded in a crisis of war, and to which it must be brought before any war can be effective... I must call on every member of this Senate to pause before he leaps into or crosses the Rubicon- declaring war is passing the Rubicon in reality."
- Senator Obadian German of New York, speech in the Senate, June 1812

Which of the following is the best support for German's claim that the United States had "abundant cause for war"?

Select one of the following:

  • the impressment of US sailors

  • the controversy over the Louisiana Purchase

  • the actions by the Barbary Pirates

  • The findings of Lewis and Clark expedition

Question 109 of 126

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"All, too, will bear in mind this sacred principle, that though the will of the majority is in all cases to prevail, that will to be rightful must be reasonable; that the minority possess their equal rights, which equal law must protect, and to violate would be oppression.
"We have called by different names brethren of the same principle. We are all Republicans, we are all Federalists. If there be any among us who would wish to dissolve this Union or to change its republican form, let them stand undisturbed as monuments of the safety with which error of opinion may be tolerated where reason is left free to combat it...
" Equal and exact justice to all men, of whatever state or persuasion, religious or political; peace, commerce, and honest friendship with all nations, entangling alliances with none."
-Thomas Jefferson, First Inaugural Address, 1801

According to Jefferson's address, which of the following should be relied on to protect equal rights for all people?

Select one of the following:

  • The majority

  • Elections

  • Laws

  • Religion

Question 110 of 126

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"All, too, will bear in mind this sacred principle, that though the will of the majority is in all cases to prevail, that will to be rightful must be reasonable; that the minority possess their equal rights, which equal law must protect, and to violate would be oppression.
"We have called by different names brethren of the same principle. We are all Republicans, we are all Federalists. If there be any among us who would wish to dissolve this Union or to change its republican form, let them stand undisturbed as monuments of the safety with which error of opinion may be tolerated where reason is left free to combat it...
" Equal and exact justice to all men, of whatever state or persuasion, religious or political; peace, commerce, and honest friendship with all nations, entangling alliances with none."
-Thomas Jefferson, First Inaugural Address, 1801

Which person would most strongly disagree with Jefferson's statement "We are all Republicans, we are all Federalists"?

Select one of the following:

  • John Calhoun

  • Alexander Hamilton

  • James Madison

  • James Monroe

Question 111 of 126

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"All, too, will bear in mind this sacred principle, that though the will of the majority is in all cases to prevail, that will to be rightful must be reasonable; that the minority possess their equal rights, which equal law must protect, and to violate would be oppression.
"We have called by different names brethren of the same principle. We are all Republicans, we are all Federalists. If there be any among us who would wish to dissolve this Union or to change its republican form, let them stand undisturbed as monuments of the safety with which error of opinion may be tolerated where reason is left free to combat it...
" Equal and exact justice to all men, of whatever state or persuasion, religious or political; peace, commerce, and honest friendship with all nations, entangling alliances with none."
-Thomas Jefferson, First Inaugural Address, 1801

Jefferson's call to avoid entangling is similar to the advice of:

Select one of the following:

  • John Adams

  • Aaron Burr

  • John Marshall

  • George Washington

Question 112 of 126

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What was the direction of the population movement that took place between 1790 and 1840?

Select one of the following:

  • The North to the South

  • The Atlantic coast to the areas between the Appalachians and the Mississippi

  • New England to California

  • The Old Northwest to New England

Question 113 of 126

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The purpose of the Indian Removal Act of 1830 was to

Select one of the following:

  • Eliminate barriers to Indian unity

  • Encourage Georgia to establish Indian schools

  • Remove Indians from land needed to construct canals

  • Facilitate white settlement on Indian lands

Question 114 of 126

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In Worcester v. Georgia, the Supreme Court ruled that the Cherokee nation:

Select one of the following:

  • Was a distinct political community and entitled to federal protection

  • Was subject to Federal but not State law

  • Was not protected by the Constitution

  • Was bound by state laws

Question 115 of 126

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What impact did the Erie Canal have on New York City?

Select one of the following:

  • It forced New York to support other canal projects

  • It turned New York into the nation's largest city

  • It caused New York to build a new bureaucratic structure to manage the canal

  • It enabled immigrants arriving in New York to move south much quicker

Question 116 of 126

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What did the antebellum criticism of lawyers, physicians, ministers, and other professionals indicate about America?

Select one of the following:

  • People no longer had need for docttors

  • People were becoming less religious

  • Americans were inclined to question authority

  • Professional schools were undergoing a crisis and needed to reform their curricula

Question 117 of 126

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What was the dispute in the 1830s nullification crisis?

Select one of the following:

  • South Carolina questioned whether a state was bound by congressional legislation

  • The New England states claimed that they could secede from the Union if they desired

  • Virginia argued that Congress could not regulate trade through the use of tariffs

  • New York demanded that the larger states be given more senators than were given to small states

Question 118 of 126

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"We, the journeyman mechanics of the city and county of Philadelphia... are serious of forming an association which shall avert as much as possible those evils which poverty and incessant toil have already inflicted...
"If the masses of the people were enabled by their labor to procure for themselves and families a full and abundant supply of comforts and conveniences of life, the consumption... would amount to at least twice the quantity it does at present, and of course the demand, by which alone employers are enabled either to subsist or accumulate, would likewise be increased in an equal proportion.
"The real object, therefore, of this association is to avert, if possible, the desolating evil which must inevitably arise from a depreciation of the intrinsic value of human labor; to raise the mechanical and productive classes to that condition of true independence and equality."
-Philadelphia Mechanics' Union of Trade Associations, 1828

One of the primary reasons to form a union during this period was to:

Select one of the following:

  • Improve working conditions

  • Win a shorter work week

  • Prevent immigration

  • Show racial solidarity

Question 119 of 126

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"We, the journeyman mechanics of the city and county of Philadelphia... are serious of forming an association which shall avert as much as possible those evils which poverty and incessant toil have already inflicted...
"If the masses of the people were enabled by their labor to procure for themselves and families a full and abundant supply of comforts and conveniences of life, the consumption... would amount to at least twice the quantity it does at present, and of course the demand, by which alone employers are enabled either to subsist or accumulate, would likewise be increased in an equal proportion.
"The real object, therefore, of this association is to avert, if possible, the desolating evil which must inevitably arise from a depreciation of the intrinsic value of human labor; to raise the mechanical and productive classes to that condition of true independence and equality."
-Philadelphia Mechanics' Union of Trade Associations, 1828

Workers in the 1820s faced difficulty because of problems with

Select one of the following:

  • transportation

  • Ethnic rivalries

  • Federal laws

  • Inventions

Question 120 of 126

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"We, the journeyman mechanics of the city and county of Philadelphia... are serious of forming an association which shall avert as much as possible those evils which poverty and incessant toil have already inflicted...
"If the masses of the people were enabled by their labor to procure for themselves and families a full and abundant supply of comforts and conveniences of life, the consumption... would amount to at least twice the quantity it does at present, and of course the demand, by which alone employers are enabled either to subsist or accumulate, would likewise be increased in an equal proportion.
"The real object, therefore, of this association is to avert, if possible, the desolating evil which must inevitably arise from a depreciation of the intrinsic value of human labor; to raise the mechanical and productive classes to that condition of true independence and equality."
-Philadelphia Mechanics' Union of Trade Associations, 1828

As described in this excerpt, which of the following would be a benefit to business owners from having a union?

Select one of the following:

  • The supply of labor would be more dependable

  • Individuals would develop better skills

  • Collective bargaining

  • Workers would become better consumers

Question 121 of 126

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What was Horace Mann's primary concern in the reform movements of the first half of the 19th century?

Select one of the following:

  • He stressed the importance of establishing asylums to treat the mentally handicapped

  • He stressed the importance of establishing public schools for children

  • He stressed the importance of juvenile detention centers for youth offenders

  • He stressed the importance of establishing psychiatric treatment centers for children

Question 122 of 126

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Why was the South Carolina Exposition and Protest written?

Select one of the following:

  • To protest repercussions of the Panic of 1819

  • To protest the Tariff of Abominations

  • To protest the policies of Martin Van Buren

  • To protest Congress' refusal to allow slavery in the territories

Question 123 of 126

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What did the tariff controversy of the early 1830s reveal?

Select one of the following:

  • It showed that the nation was united in the pursuit of economic nationalism

  • It showed that the nation faced serious and growing sectional pressures in the years ahead

  • It showed that the West had growing political and economic power

Question 124 of 126

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"At home people are the sovereign power... the industrial classes are the true sovereigns. Idleness is a condition so unrecognized and unrespected with us that the few professing it find themselves immediately thrown out of the great machine of active life which constitutes American society.
"The CULTIVATORS OF THE SOIL constitute the great industrial class in this country... for, at this moment, they do not only feed all other classes but also no insignificant portion of needy Europe, furnish the raw materials for manufacturers, and raise the great staples which figure so largely in the accounts of the merchants, the shipowner and manufacturer, in every village, town and seaport in the Union...
"The system of railroads and cheap transportation already begins to supply the seaboard cities with some fair and beautiful fruits of the fertile West."
-A.J. Downing, landscape architect, "In Praise of Farming", 1848

The crop that best fits Downing's description as one of "the great staples" in the mid-19th century America was...

Select one of the following:

  • Corn

  • Tobacco

  • Sugar

  • Cotton

Question 125 of 126

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"At home people are the sovereign power... the industrial classes are the true sovereigns. Idleness is a condition so unrecognized and unrespected with us that the few professing it find themselves immediately thrown out of the great machine of active life which constitutes American society.
"The CULTIVATORS OF THE SOIL constitute the great industrial class in this country... for, at this moment, they do not only feed all other classes but also no insignificant portion of needy Europe, furnish the raw materials for manufacturers, and raise the great staples which figure so largely in the accounts of the merchants, the shipowner and manufacturer, in every village, town and seaport in the Union...
"The system of railroads and cheap transportation already begins to supply the seaboard cities with some fair and beautiful fruits of the fertile West."
-A.J. Downing, landscape architect, "In Praise of Farming", 1848

Commercial farming expanded rapidly in the Old Northwest by mid-century primarily because of:

Select one of the following:

  • high crop prices

  • transportation improvements

  • a prohibition o fslavery

  • the weakness of soils in the East

Question 126 of 126

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What was one of the reason's Andrew Jackson vetoed the rechartering of the Bank of the United States?

Select one of the following:

  • The bank prevented state banks from lending money

  • It refused to accept deposits of federal revenue

  • It was a private monopoly

  • Its president constantly meddled in national politics

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APUSH Midterm Exam

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Quiz on APUSH Midterm Exam, created by dabbsreg on 29/11/2014.

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