Youth in Conflict with the Law - Final Exam Review

Question 1 of 81

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In adult court, it is professionals who present the two sides of the case, but in youth justice court, there are no professionals.

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 2 of 81

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When a parent or another responsible person is present, it is not necessary to remind a young person of right to counsel; having said it once is enough.

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 3 of 81

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A young person who is brought into a police station for a breathalyser test has a right to consult counsel before the test can be given.

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 4 of 81

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When the case of a young person gets to court, there is no longer a role for the police.

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 5 of 81

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Defence Counsel must be mindful that their job includes representing

Select one of the following:

  • The criminal justice system

  • The society

  • The young person who is their client

  • Two of the above

Question 6 of 81

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Under the rule of “one lawyer per family”, young persons are represented by

Select one of the following:

  • The lawyer who represents the parents

  • A lawyer of their parents choosing

  • Both of the above

  • None, this rule does not exist.

Question 7 of 81

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In youth justice court, the role of the Crown Prosecutor is

Select one of the following:

  • Focused on the needs of the young person because of the YCJA

  • Very different from what it is in adult court

  • Not much different from what it is in adult court

  • Two of the above

Question 8 of 81

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Which of the following is not a responsibility of the judge in youth justice court?

Select one of the following:

  • Ensuring that defense counsel has made full disclosure to the Crown

  • Resolving disputes over the admissibility of evidence

  • Determining that proper procedure was followed in laying the charges

  • Determining guilt or innocence

Question 9 of 81

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It is for any of the most serious offences that a young person can elect to have trial by jury in youth court.

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 10 of 81

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Trial by jury is a right of all Canadians as long as the charge against them involves a violation of the Criminal Code of Canada

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 11 of 81

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Typically, the youth justice court is held in private without any member of the public allowed to be present

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 12 of 81

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In the youth justice court, a young person may elect to have a trial by jury

Select one of the following:

  • For any serious offence

  • Only when both parents consent

  • For 1st or 2nd degree murder if the Crown is seeking a youth sentence

  • None of the above

Question 13 of 81

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Young persons must personally appear before the youth justice court

Select one of the following:

  • Only if their lawyer is not present

  • For all charges

  • Only for charges of serious offences

  • Only for charges of presumptive offences

Question 14 of 81

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In the youth justice court, judges may consider the protection of the privacy of all but which of the following?

Select one of the following:

  • The young person who is charged

  • victims

  • The police

  • witnesses

Question 15 of 81

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The YCJA seeks to reserve court proceedings for

Select one of the following:

  • Young persons who are second-time offenders

  • More serious cases

  • Young persons who have already received two or more warnings

  • Two of the above

Question 16 of 81

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In the youth justice court, the standard for a finding of guilt is

Select one of the following:

  • The guilt is “beyond a reasonable doubt”

  • The guilt is “on the balance of probabilities”

  • There is no formal finding of guilt

  • The standard changes with the merits of each case

Question 17 of 81

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Pre-sentence reports are usually prepared by the police officer who made the arrest

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 18 of 81

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Once a young person receives an absolute discharge, that discharge cannot be admitted again in court.

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 19 of 81

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The purpose of a youth sentence is to appropriately punish the young person for the harm done

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 20 of 81

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A youth justice court judge may require a young person to perform up to 240 hours of community service.

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 21 of 81

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Community service orders are reserved for those 16 and 17 years old and never used for those 14 and 15 years old.

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 22 of 81

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Which of the following is not a concern of the YCJA when it comes to sentencing?

Select one of the following:

  • Protection of society

  • Holding young person accountable for their behaviour

  • The mental and emotional health of the young person

  • Ensuring that young people show respect for the judge and officers of the court

Question 23 of 81

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Which of the following is not likely to be found in a pre-sentence report?

Select one of the following:

  • Plans the young person might have about the future

  • Information on the young person’s age and attitude

  • Results of interviews with the young person

  • Results of interviews with the accomplices of the young person

Question 24 of 81

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There is no reason to believe that pre-sentence assessments are found to be useful by

Select one of the following:

  • Young persons

  • judges

  • Crown prosecutors

  • Defence council

Question 25 of 81

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Which of the following may not be used as a condition of probation?

Select one of the following:

  • Try to obtain employment

  • Repair relationship with parents

  • Report to a probation officer

  • Attend school

Question 26 of 81

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Which of the following conditions is not permitted in a probation order?

Select one of the following:

  • Must remain in a specific city

  • Must reside in a specific location

  • Must try to obtain employment

  • All of the above are permitted

Question 27 of 81

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“Least degree of restraint” when applied to a custodial facility means that the residents are allowed to come and go as they please, but only during the day

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 28 of 81

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A facility with a “higher degree of restraint” means that the extent of restraint or control is greater than in a facility with a “lower degree of restraint”

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 29 of 81

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In contrast to the United States, the practice in Canada is to have indeterminate sentences

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 30 of 81

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When a custodial sentence is given, the following is to be taken into account:
The highest level of restraint possible

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 31 of 81

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When a custodial sentence is given, the following is to be taken into account:
The safety of the young person

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 32 of 81

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Which of the following is least consistent with a facility in a higher degree of restraint?

Select one of the following:

  • classrooms

  • community reintegration

  • segregation cells

  • “lock down”

Question 33 of 81

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If a young person turns 18 years while serving a term of custody

Select one of the following:

  • The term of custody is automatically extended so that custody will last for at least 12 additional months.

  • The offender is automatically transferred to a correctional facility for adults

  • The term of custody ends

  • The term continues

Question 34 of 81

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Changes to a young person’s custody can be made by

Select one of the following:

  • Correctional officials

  • The youth justice court

  • The provincial director

  • The Crown prosecutor

Question 35 of 81

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Young persons who do not return once their re-integrative leave has been revoked may be

Select one of the following:

  • Arrested and subjected to treatment

  • Arrested only with a warrant and returned to custody

  • Arrested without a warrant and returned to custody

  • Arrested without a warrant and returned to their parent’s house

Question 36 of 81

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Conditional supervision orders allow young persons to

Select one of the following:

  • Serve the remainder of their custodial sentence with almost no conditions imposed on them, except for staying out of trouble.

  • Hold a job or go to school while living in a secure custody facility

  • Serve sentences to secure custody in open custody

  • Serve the remainder of their sentence in the community

Question 37 of 81

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Identify 4 Purposes of Re-Integrative Leave

Select one or more of the following:

  • Medical

  • Compassionate or humanitarian

  • Rehabilitation

  • Go out of town on a vacation

  • Reintegration into the community

Question 38 of 81

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The distinction between phase I and phase II offenders is based on the seriousness of the offence

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 39 of 81

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Facilities that provide custody of young persons in conflict with the law in Ontario are all privately operated

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 40 of 81

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All facilities are required to have the same treatment services

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 41 of 81

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Which of the following is not consistent with the “strict discipline” approach to custody for young offenders?

Select one of the following:

  • education

  • Extend periods of leisure time to teach the need for structure

  • Earned privileges

  • Respect for self and others

Question 42 of 81

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The only objective of the criminal justice system is to find innocent people not guilty

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 43 of 81

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Restraint has the goal of protecting the community from further harm.

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 44 of 81

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Retribution is balanced.

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 45 of 81

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General deterrence depends on the vicarious experience of punishment

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 46 of 81

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Even laws that are difficult to enforce can play a role in expressing where we stand, as a society, with respect to certain behaviours.

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 47 of 81

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Capital punishment is the ultimate form of

Select one of the following:

  • Restraint

  • Retribution

  • General deterrence

  • Rehabilitation

Question 48 of 81

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One argument for retaining laws that are difficult to enforce is that they are

Select one of the following:

  • A form of restitution

  • A specific deterrent

  • Symbolic

  • No such argument can be made for this situation

Question 49 of 81

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Primarily, restitution involves the notion of

Select one of the following:

  • Putting the case to "rest"

  • Making the victim whole again

  • Allowing the victim to be involved in the punishment of the offender

  • Returning cash and property to the victim

Question 50 of 81

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The Youth Criminal Justice Act is focused primarily on

Select one of the following:

  • Making the young person function effectively in society

  • Compensating the victim

  • Punishment of the young person

  • Achieving balance between the offender and the victim

Question 51 of 81

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Restraint is

Select one of the following:

  • A primary goal of the YCJA

  • Not a major focus of the YCJA

  • The underlying principle of restorative justice

  • A concept used to limit how much a victim is compensated

Question 52 of 81

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In victim impact statements victims get to tell the court the nature and length of punishment that the offender deserves

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 53 of 81

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Typically in youth conferencing circles the community is represented

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 54 of 81

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The notion of restorative justice was largely unknown until the YCJA came into effect.

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 55 of 81

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Restorative justice programs even exist in large cities.

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 56 of 81

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The police can refer a young person to a restorative justice program.

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 57 of 81

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The manner in which restorative justice is to be implemented is

Select one of the following:

  • Clearly identified in the Criminal Code of Canada

  • Clearly identified in the CFSA

  • Clearly identified in the YCJA

  • Left up to each provincial jurisdiction to determine

Question 58 of 81

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Restorative justice is intended to

Select one of the following:

  • Expand options that are consistent with the criminal justice system

  • Compensate the victim

  • Act as a form of general deterrence

  • Punish the young offender

Question 59 of 81

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For restorative justice to be effective, the offender must

Select one of the following:

  • Be ready to admit guilt for the act

  • Acknowledge the extent to which the victim suffered

  • Be prepared to accept responsibility for the consequences of the act

  • All of the above

Question 60 of 81

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Restorative justice programs appear to be most effective in

Select one of the following:

  • Communities with large proportions of young people

  • Aboriginal and first nations communities only

  • Smaller, homogeneous communities

  • Large, homogeneous communities

Question 61 of 81

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Restorative justice programs

Select one of the following:

  • Usually initiated by victims wishing to receive compensation

  • Have been shown to be the most effective means of rehabilitating young people

  • Are the most cost effective way of compensating victims and making them "whole" again

  • Seem like a good idea but with some questions as to their overall effectiveness

Question 62 of 81

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Most adult criminals start their careers as young offenders

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 63 of 81

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Most young persons do not become adult criminals

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 64 of 81

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Once a young persons in conflict with the law come into contact with the authorities they are bound to be chronic offenders

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 65 of 81

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Among young people, positive attitudes toward the police tend to decrease over time

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 66 of 81

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An attitude is an emotional predisposition

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 67 of 81

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Which of the following is true about the attitude of young people toward the police?

Select one of the following:

  • Attitudes are little affected by personal experience

  • Attitudes are remarkably stable over time

  • Attitudes are more positive as young people move through adolescence

  • Attitudes are more positive among younger kids

Question 68 of 81

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Which of the following is related to young people's attitude toward the police?

Select one of the following:

  • Self-reported law-violating behaviour

  • Having been arrested

  • Self-definition as a delinquent

  • All of the above

Question 69 of 81

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Which of the following is related to young people's attitude toward the police?

Select one of the following:

  • Having been arrested

  • Self-reported law-violating behaviour

  • Self-definition as a delinquent

  • All of the above

Question 70 of 81

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Which of the following types of contact with the police is least likely to generate a positive image of the police?

Select one of the following:

  • Being arrested

  • Making a 911 call

  • Reporting a robbery

  • Asking the police for directions

Question 71 of 81

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Which of the following appear to play some role in determining people's attitude toward the police

Select one of the following:

  • Age

  • Culture

  • Experience

  • All of the above

Question 72 of 81

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The best advice for a police officer is to not talk to young people they encounter, unless they have something official to say to them

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 73 of 81

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Victims of child endangerment often become young offenders

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 74 of 81

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Police officers are not only law enforcement officers, but social workers as well.

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 75 of 81

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Gang behaviour is found only in the largest cities in Canada

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 76 of 81

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There are some clues as to whether gang behaviour exists in a community.

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 77 of 81

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Many young people have feelings when interacting with the police that can best be described as

Select one of the following:

  • Joyful

  • Ambivilent

  • Enthusiastic

  • Pitiful

Question 78 of 81

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What is the role of the police uniform in influencing the relationship with a young person?

Select one of the following:

  • It has no effect

  • It can be positive

  • It can be negative

  • It can be either positive or negative

Question 79 of 81

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Which of the following is probably NOT good advice to give a police officer on how to deal with young people?

Select one of the following:

  • Talk with kids

  • Don't let them beat you to the punch

  • Sweat the small stuff

  • Be firm, but fair

Question 80 of 81

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Which of the following is a form of child endangerment?

Select one of the following:

  • Neglect

  • Sexual molestation

  • Emotional abuse

  • All of the above

Question 81 of 81

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Which of the following is least likely to be true of victims of child abuse and neglect?

Select one of the following:

  • Victims of sexual abuse have parents who do not get along well

  • Victims have poor relationships with their parents

  • Sexual abuse victims have a dense web of peer relationships

  • Children between 8 and 12 are most vulnerable to sexual abuse

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Youth in Conflict with the Law - Final Exam Review

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Quiz by , created about 2 years ago

Quiz on Youth in Conflict with the Law - Final Exam Review, created by jessedyo on 29/11/2014.

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