Patho Quiz 1

Question 1 of 50

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An ordered photographic display of a set of chromosomes from a single cell is a

Select one of the following:

  • Karyotype

  • no

Question 2 of 50

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A 75-year-old male presents with chest pain with exertion. He was previously diagnosed with arteriosclerosis (narrowing and blockage of the vessels). The chest pain is most likely due to hypoxic injury secondary to

Select one of the following:

  • Ischemia (inadequate blood supply to organ)

  • no

Question 3 of 50

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Natriuretic hormones affect the balance of:

Select one of the following:

  • calcium.

  • magnesium.

  • sodium.

  • potassium.

Question 4 of 50

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How are potassium and sodium transported across plasma membranes?

Select one of the following:

  • By diffusion

  • By coupled channels

  • By passive electrolyte channels

  • By active transport requiring ATP

Question 5 of 50

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The role of physical activity in the prevention of colon cancer is identified by which of the following?

Select one of the following:

  • It increases the secretion of hydrochloric acid thereby killing mutants.

  • It increases blood supply thereby increasing oxygen to the colon.

  • It increases fluid loss leading to thirst and increased fluid intake, hydrating the colon.

  • It increases gut motility thereby decreasing the time the bowel is exposed to mutagens.

Question 6 of 50

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Which of the following compounds has been shown to increase the risk of cancer when used in combination with smoking?

Select one of the following:

  • Hypnotics

  • Antihistamines

  • Steroids

  • Alcohol

Question 7 of 50

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When an aide asks why carcinomas rarely occur in childhood, how should the nurse respond? (Select all that apply.)

Select one of the following:

  • Carcinomas need a long time from exposure to occurrence.
    Carcinomas are due to environmental exposures.

  • Carcinomas cannot develop in an immunosuppressed environment.
    Carcinomas are mesodermal.
    Carcinomas occur primarily in secondary sexual organs.

Question 8 of 50

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An athlete runs a marathon, after which his muscles feel fatigued and unable to contract. The athlete asks the nurse why this happened. How should the nurse respond? A deficiency in ________ can cause impaired muscle contraction.

Select one of the following:

  • AMP

  • GMP

  • GTP

  • ATP

Question 9 of 50

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The faculty member asked the student to identify the appropriate term for the movement of small, electrically uncharged molecules through a semipermeable barrier. Which answer indicates the nursing student understood the teaching?

Select one of the following:

  • Diffusion

  • Osmosis

  • Active Transport

  • Hydrostatic Pressure

Question 10 of 50

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A patient receives a hypertonic saline solution intravenously to replace the sodium and chloride lost in the stool. What effect will this fluid replacement have on cells? Cells will:

Select one of the following:

  • Divide

  • Become hydrated

  • Swell or burst

  • Shrink

Question 11 of 50

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What causes the rapid change in the resting membrane potential that initiates an action potential?

Select one of the following:

  • Potassium gates close, allowing sodium into the cell to change the membrane potential from positive to negative.

  • Sodium gates close, allowing potassium into the cell to change the membrane potential from positive to negative.

  • Potassium gates open, and potassium rushes into the cell, changing the membrane potential from negative to positive.

  • Sodium gates open, and sodium rushes into the cell, changing the membrane potential from negative to positive.

Question 12 of 50

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The nurse is teaching staff about the most common cause of Down syndrome. What is the nurse describing?

Select one of the following:

  • Paternal nondisjunction

  • Paternal translocations

  • Maternal nondisjunction

  • Maternal translocations

Question 13 of 50

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An aide asks the nurse why people who have neurofibromatosis will show varying degrees of the disease. Which genetic principle should the nurse explain to the aide?

Select one of the following:

  • Expressivity

  • Dominance

  • Recessiveness

  • Penetrance

Question 14 of 50

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A child is born with blue eyes (bb). The child’s mother has blue eyes and the father has brown eyes. Which of the following represents the father?

Select one of the following:

  • Bb

  • BB

Question 15 of 50

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A biologist is explaining how RNA directs the synthesis of protein. Which process is the biologist describing?

Select one of the following:

  • Transcription

  • Translation

  • Translocation

  • Termination

Question 16 of 50

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When the nurse is teaching the staff about X-linked recessive disorders, which information should the nurse include? (Select all that apply.)

Select one of the following:

  • The gene can be transmitted through a series of carrier females.
    The trait is never transmitted from father to son.
    The gene is passed from an affected father to all his daughters.

  • The trait is seen much more often in females than in males.
    The trait never skips generations.

Question 17 of 50

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A 52-year-old male suffered a myocardial infarction secondary to atherosclerosis and ischemia. Once oxygen returned to the damaged heart, reperfusion injury occurred as a result of:

Select one of the following:

  • Vacuolation

  • Lipid acceptor proteins

  • Increased metabolic state

  • Free radical formation

Question 18 of 50

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A common pathway of irreversible cell injury involves increased intracellular:

Select one of the following:

  • Sodium

  • Potassium

  • Calcium

  • Magnesium

Question 19 of 50

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A 55-year-old male with a 30-year history of smoking is examined for respiratory disturbance. Examination of his airway (bronchial) reveals that stratified squamous epithelial cells have replaced the normal columnar ciliated cells. This type of cellular adaptation is called:

Select one of the following:

  • Hyperplasia

  • Dysplasia

  • Anaplasia

  • Metaplasia

Question 20 of 50

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A nurse is teaching the staff about antidiuretic hormone (ADH). Which information should the nurse include? Secretion of ADH is stimulated by:

Select one of the following:

  • Generalized edema

  • Increased serum potassium

  • Increased plasma osmolality

  • Decreased renal blood flow

Question 21 of 50

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Which statement by the staff indicates teaching was successful concerning aldosterone? Secretion of aldosterone results in:

Select one of the following:

  • Increased serum potassium levels

  • Decreased plasma osmolality

  • Localized edema

  • Increased blood volume

Question 22 of 50

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Which of the following patients is the most at risk for developing hypernatremia? A patient with:

Select one of the following:

  • Vomiting

  • Dehydration

  • Hypoaldosteronism

  • Diuretic use

Question 23 of 50

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For a patient experiencing metabolic acidosis, the body will compensate by:

Select one of the following:

  • Hyperventilating

  • Excreting H+ through the kidneys

  • Retaining CO2 in the lungs

  • Secreting aldosterone

Question 24 of 50

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A 54-year-old male with a long history of smoking complains of excessive tiredness, shortness of breath, and overall ill feelings. Lab results reveal decreased pH, increased CO2, and normal bicarbonate ion. These findings help to confirm the diagnosis of:

Select one of the following:

  • Metabolic acidosis

  • Respiratory acidosis

  • Respiratory alkalosis

  • Metabolic alkalosis

Question 25 of 50

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Water movement between the ICF and ECF compartments is determined by:

Select one of the following:

  • Osmotic forces

  • Antidiuretic hormone

  • Plasma oncotic pressure

  • Buffer systems

Question 26 of 50

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When planning care for a dehydrated patient, the nurse remembers the principle of water balance is closely related to _____ balance.

Select one of the following:

  • Sodium

  • Potassium

  • Bicarbonate

  • Chloride

Question 27 of 50

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The predominant phagocyte of early inflammation is the:

Select one of the following:

  • Macrophage

  • Neutrophil

  • Eosinophil

  • Lymphocyte

Question 28 of 50

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A 25-year-old female experiences a headache and takes Advil for relief. A nurse recalls Advil relieves the headache by:

Select one of the following:

  • Decreasing prostaglandin production

  • Increasing platelet-activating factor

  • Increasing histamine release

  • Decreasing leukotriene production

Question 29 of 50

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The nurse identified each of the following clinical manifestations of inflammation. Which would the nurse classify as a local response? (Select all that apply.)

Select one of the following:

  • Heat
    Redness
    Swelling
    Pain

  • Fever

Question 30 of 50

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A 10-year-old male is stung by a bee while playing in the yard. He experiences a severe allergic reaction and has to go to the ER. The nurse providing care realizes this reaction is the result of:

Select one of the following:

  • Toxoids

  • IgM

  • IgE

  • IgA

Question 31 of 50

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Which patient will develop active immunity? A patient who:

Select one of the following:

  • Has T cells that become B cells

  • Receives immunoglobulin

  • Has natural exposure to an antigen or receives an immunization

  • Receives preformed antibodies or T cells from a donor

Question 32 of 50

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When the immunoglobulin crosses the placenta, what type of immunity does the fetus receive?

Select one of the following:

  • Active

  • Passive

  • Innate

  • Cell-mediated

Question 33 of 50

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When a nurse cares for a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), the nurse remembers this disease is an example of:

Select one of the following:

  • Alloimmunity

  • Homoimmunity

  • Alleimmunity

  • Autoimmunity

Question 34 of 50

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When a nurse notices that a patient has type O blood, the nurse realizes that anti-_____ antibodies are present in the patient’s body.

Select one of the following:

  • B only

  • A only

  • O

  • A and B

Question 35 of 50

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A 15-year-old male suffers from severe hemorrhage following a motor vehicle accident. He is given a blood transfusion, but shortly afterward the red blood cells are destroyed by agglutination and lysis. Which of the following blood type-transfusion type matches would cause this?

Select one of the following:

  • A-AB

  • A-A

  • B-O

  • AB-O

Question 36 of 50

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After studying about viruses, which information indicates the student has a good understanding of viruses? Viruses:

Select one of the following:

  • Contain no DNA or RNA

  • Replicate their genetic material inside host cells

  • Are easily killed by antimicrobials

  • Are capable of independent reproduction

Question 37 of 50

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What common symptom should be assessed in individuals with immunodeficiency?

Select one of the following:

  • Autoantibody production

  • Hypersensitivity

  • Anemia

  • Recurrent infections

Question 38 of 50

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A 10-year-old male is stung by a bee while playing in the yard. He begins itching and develops pain, swelling, redness, and respiratory difficulties. He is suffering from:

Select one of the following:

  • Autoimmunity

  • Tissue-specific hypersensitivity

  • Anaphylaxis

  • Immunodeficiency

Question 39 of 50

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A 45-year-old female was recently diagnosed with cervical cancer. She reports a sexual history that includes 43 partners. Which of the following is the most likely cause of her cancer?

Select one of the following:

  • Rubella virus

  • Hepatitis B virus

  • Human papillomavirus (HPV)

  • Herpes virus

Question 40 of 50

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A 45-year-old male presents with persistent, severe stomach pain. Testing reveals a peptic ulcer. Further laboratory tests reveal the presence of Helicobacter pylori. Which of the following is of concern for this patient?

Select one of the following:

  • Leukemia

  • Gastric cancer

  • Adenocarcinoma of the colon

  • Lung cancer

Question 41 of 50

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Which information indicates a nurse understands characteristics of malignant tumors?

Select one of the following:

  • Has a high mitotic index

  • Grows slowly

  • Is well-differentiated

  • Has a well-defined capsule

Question 42 of 50

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A 30-year-old female is diagnosed with cancer. Testing reveals that the cancer cells have spread to local lymph nodes. A nurse realizes this cancer would be documented as stage:

Select one of the following:

  • 1

  • 4

  • 3

  • 2

Question 43 of 50

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Which information should the nurse include when teaching about angiogenic factors? In cancer, angiogenic factors stimulate:

Select one of the following:

  • Release of growth factors

  • Tumor regression

  • Apoptosis

  • New blood vessel growth

Question 44 of 50

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In response to an increased workload, cardiac myocardial cells will:

Select one of the following:

  • decrease in length.

  • increase in number.

  • increase in excitability.

  • increase in size.

Question 45 of 50

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Effects of elevated -endorphins include:

Select one of the following:

  • hyperglycemia.

  • pain inhibition.

  • peripheral vasoconstriction.

  • decreased immune cell activity.

Question 46 of 50

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A runner has depleted all the oxygen available for muscle energy. Which of the following will facilitate his continued muscle performance?

Select one of the following:

  • Oxidative phosphorylation

  • Anaerobic glycolysis

  • Aerobic glycolysis

  • Electron-transport chain

Question 47 of 50

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An epidemiological study reveals that a large population of people carry the same genetic mutation but only 75% of the people with that mutation express the disease. This finding can be described as which of the following?

Select one of the following:

  • Hidden phenotype

  • Variable expressivity

  • Incomplete penetrance

  • Karotypic malformation

Question 48 of 50

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A 23-year old diabetic male presents with a 3-day history of flu-like symptoms. His blood sugar is elevated and the arterial blood gas (ABG) values reveal a decreased pH, normal CO2, and decreased bicarbonate ion. The most likely diagnosis is:

Select one of the following:

  • respiratory alkalosis.

  • metabolic alkalosis.

  • metabolic acidosis.

  • respiratory acidosis.

Question 49 of 50

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A nurse is reviewing the pedigree chart. When checking for a proband, what is the nurse looking for?

Select one of the following:

  • The codominance

  • The phenotype of genetic material

  • The person who is first diagnosed with a genetic disease

  • The individual who has a disease gene but is phenotypically normal

Question 50 of 50

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A 20 year old patient asks the nurse about side effects of the flu vaccine. The nurse knows that possible side effects include:

Select one of the following:

  • dystonia.

  • inability to ambulate in a forward direction.

  • pain at the injection site.

  • an Australian accent.

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Patho Quiz 1

Crystal Thorn
Quiz by , created about 2 years ago

Quiz on Patho Quiz 1, created by Crystal Thorn on 02/12/2014.

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