An ordered photographic display of a set of chromosomes from a single cell is a
A 75-year-old male presents with chest pain with exertion. He was previously diagnosed with arteriosclerosis (narrowing and blockage of the vessels). The chest pain is most likely due to hypoxic injury secondary to
Ischemia (inadequate blood supply to organ)
Natriuretic hormones affect the balance of:
How are potassium and sodium transported across plasma membranes?
By coupled channels
By passive electrolyte channels
By active transport requiring ATP
The role of physical activity in the prevention of colon cancer is identified by which of the following?
It increases the secretion of hydrochloric acid thereby killing mutants.
It increases blood supply thereby increasing oxygen to the colon.
It increases fluid loss leading to thirst and increased fluid intake, hydrating the colon.
It increases gut motility thereby decreasing the time the bowel is exposed to mutagens.
Which of the following compounds has been shown to increase the risk of cancer when used in combination with smoking?
When an aide asks why carcinomas rarely occur in childhood, how should the nurse respond? (Select all that apply.)
Carcinomas need a long time from exposure to occurrence.
Carcinomas are due to environmental exposures.
Carcinomas cannot develop in an immunosuppressed environment.
Carcinomas are mesodermal.
Carcinomas occur primarily in secondary sexual organs.
An athlete runs a marathon, after which his muscles feel fatigued and unable to contract. The athlete asks the nurse why this happened. How should the nurse respond? A deficiency in ________ can cause impaired muscle contraction.
The faculty member asked the student to identify the appropriate term for the movement of small, electrically uncharged molecules through a semipermeable barrier. Which answer indicates the nursing student understood the teaching?
A patient receives a hypertonic saline solution intravenously to replace the sodium and chloride lost in the stool. What effect will this fluid replacement have on cells? Cells will:
Swell or burst
What causes the rapid change in the resting membrane potential that initiates an action potential?
Potassium gates close, allowing sodium into the cell to change the membrane potential from positive to negative.
Sodium gates close, allowing potassium into the cell to change the membrane potential from positive to negative.
Potassium gates open, and potassium rushes into the cell, changing the membrane potential from negative to positive.
Sodium gates open, and sodium rushes into the cell, changing the membrane potential from negative to positive.
The nurse is teaching staff about the most common cause of Down syndrome. What is the nurse describing?
An aide asks the nurse why people who have neurofibromatosis will show varying degrees of the disease. Which genetic principle should the nurse explain to the aide?
A child is born with blue eyes (bb). The child’s mother has blue eyes and the father has brown eyes. Which of the following represents the father?
A biologist is explaining how RNA directs the synthesis of protein. Which process is the biologist describing?
When the nurse is teaching the staff about X-linked recessive disorders, which information should the nurse include? (Select all that apply.)
The gene can be transmitted through a series of carrier females.
The trait is never transmitted from father to son.
The gene is passed from an affected father to all his daughters.
The trait is seen much more often in females than in males.
The trait never skips generations.
A 52-year-old male suffered a myocardial infarction secondary to atherosclerosis and ischemia. Once oxygen returned to the damaged heart, reperfusion injury occurred as a result of:
Lipid acceptor proteins
Increased metabolic state
Free radical formation
A common pathway of irreversible cell injury involves increased intracellular:
A 55-year-old male with a 30-year history of smoking is examined for respiratory disturbance. Examination of his airway (bronchial) reveals that stratified squamous epithelial cells have replaced the normal columnar ciliated cells. This type of cellular adaptation is called:
A nurse is teaching the staff about antidiuretic hormone (ADH). Which information should the nurse include? Secretion of ADH is stimulated by:
Increased serum potassium
Increased plasma osmolality
Decreased renal blood flow
Which statement by the staff indicates teaching was successful concerning aldosterone? Secretion of aldosterone results in:
Increased serum potassium levels
Decreased plasma osmolality
Increased blood volume
Which of the following patients is the most at risk for developing hypernatremia? A patient with:
For a patient experiencing metabolic acidosis, the body will compensate by:
Excreting H+ through the kidneys
Retaining CO2 in the lungs
A 54-year-old male with a long history of smoking complains of excessive tiredness, shortness of breath, and overall ill feelings. Lab results reveal decreased pH, increased CO2, and normal bicarbonate ion. These findings help to confirm the diagnosis of:
Water movement between the ICF and ECF compartments is determined by:
Plasma oncotic pressure
When planning care for a dehydrated patient, the nurse remembers the principle of water balance is closely related to _____ balance.
The predominant phagocyte of early inflammation is the:
A 25-year-old female experiences a headache and takes Advil for relief. A nurse recalls Advil relieves the headache by:
Decreasing prostaglandin production
Increasing platelet-activating factor
Increasing histamine release
Decreasing leukotriene production
The nurse identified each of the following clinical manifestations of inflammation. Which would the nurse classify as a local response? (Select all that apply.)
A 10-year-old male is stung by a bee while playing in the yard. He experiences a severe allergic reaction and has to go to the ER. The nurse providing care realizes this reaction is the result of:
Which patient will develop active immunity? A patient who:
Has T cells that become B cells
Has natural exposure to an antigen or receives an immunization
Receives preformed antibodies or T cells from a donor
When the immunoglobulin crosses the placenta, what type of immunity does the fetus receive?
When a nurse cares for a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), the nurse remembers this disease is an example of:
When a nurse notices that a patient has type O blood, the nurse realizes that anti-_____ antibodies are present in the patient’s body.
A and B
A 15-year-old male suffers from severe hemorrhage following a motor vehicle accident. He is given a blood transfusion, but shortly afterward the red blood cells are destroyed by agglutination and lysis. Which of the following blood type-transfusion type matches would cause this?
After studying about viruses, which information indicates the student has a good understanding of viruses? Viruses:
Contain no DNA or RNA
Replicate their genetic material inside host cells
Are easily killed by antimicrobials
Are capable of independent reproduction
What common symptom should be assessed in individuals with immunodeficiency?
A 10-year-old male is stung by a bee while playing in the yard. He begins itching and develops pain, swelling, redness, and respiratory difficulties. He is suffering from:
A 45-year-old female was recently diagnosed with cervical cancer. She reports a sexual history that includes 43 partners. Which of the following is the most likely cause of her cancer?
Hepatitis B virus
Human papillomavirus (HPV)
A 45-year-old male presents with persistent, severe stomach pain. Testing reveals a peptic ulcer. Further laboratory tests reveal the presence of Helicobacter pylori. Which of the following is of concern for this patient?
Adenocarcinoma of the colon
Which information indicates a nurse understands characteristics of malignant tumors?
Has a high mitotic index
Has a well-defined capsule
A 30-year-old female is diagnosed with cancer. Testing reveals that the cancer cells have spread to local lymph nodes. A nurse realizes this cancer would be documented as stage:
Which information should the nurse include when teaching about angiogenic factors? In cancer, angiogenic factors stimulate:
Release of growth factors
New blood vessel growth
In response to an increased workload, cardiac myocardial cells will:
decrease in length.
increase in number.
increase in excitability.
increase in size.
Effects of elevated -endorphins include:
decreased immune cell activity.
A runner has depleted all the oxygen available for muscle energy. Which of the following will facilitate his continued muscle performance?
An epidemiological study reveals that a large population of people carry the same genetic mutation but only 75% of the people with that mutation express the disease. This finding can be described as which of the following?
A 23-year old diabetic male presents with a 3-day history of flu-like symptoms. His blood sugar is elevated and the arterial blood gas (ABG) values reveal a decreased pH, normal CO2, and decreased bicarbonate ion. The most likely diagnosis is:
A nurse is reviewing the pedigree chart. When checking for a proband, what is the nurse looking for?
The phenotype of genetic material
The person who is first diagnosed with a genetic disease
The individual who has a disease gene but is phenotypically normal
A 20 year old patient asks the nurse about side effects of the flu vaccine. The nurse knows that possible side effects include:
inability to ambulate in a forward direction.
pain at the injection site.
an Australian accent.