Read the following passage carefully and answer question at the bottom.
1 We shall not understand what a book is, and why a
2 book has the value many persons have, and is even
3 less replaceable than a person, if we forget how
4 important to it is its body, the building that has been
5 built to hold its line of language safely together
6 through many adventures and a long time. Words on
7 a screen have visual qualities, to be sure, and these
8 darkly limn their shape, but they have no materiality,
9 they are only shadows, and when the light shifts they'll
10 be gone. Off the screen they do not exist as words.
11 They do not wait to be reseen, reread; they only wait
12 to be remade, relit. I cannot carry them beneath a tree
13 or onto a side porch; I cannot argue in their margins;
14 I cannot enjoy the memory of my dismay when,
15 perhaps after years, I return to my treasured copy of
16 Treasure Island to find the jam I inadvertently smeared
17 there still spotting a page precisely at the place where
18 Billy Bones chases Black Dog out of the Admiral
19 Benbow with a volley of oaths and where his cutlass
20 misses its mark to notch the inn's wide sign instead.
21 My copy, which I still possess, was of the cheapest.
22 Published by M. A. Donohue & Co. of Chicago, it bears
23 no date, and its coarse pages are jaundiced and brit-
24 tle, yet they've outlived their manufacturer; they will out-
25 live their reader--always comforting yet a bit sad. The
26 pages, in fact, smell their age, their decrepitude, and
27 the jam smear is like an ancient bruise; but like a scar
28 recalling its accident, I remember the pounding in my
29 chest when the black spot was pressed into Billy
30 Bones's palm and Blind Pew appeared on the road
31 in a passage that I knew even then was a piece of
32 exemplary prose.
33 That book and I loved each other, and I don't mean
34 just its text: that book, which then was new, its cover
35 slick and shiny, its paper agleam with the tossing sea
36 and armed, as Long John Silver was, for a fight, its
37 binding tight as the elastic of new underwear, not
38 slack as it is now, after so many openings and clos-
39 ings, so many dry years; that book would be borne off
40 to my room, where it lived through my high school
41 miseries in a dime-store bookcase, and it would
42 accompany me to college too, and be packed in the
43 duffel bag I carried as a sailor.
44 Should we put these feelings for the object and its
45 vicissitudes down to simple sentimental nostalgia?
46 I think not; but even as a stimulus for reminiscence,
47 a treasure more important than a dance card, or the
48 photo that freezes you in at the edge of the Grand
49 Canyon, because such a book can be a significant
50 event in the history of your reading, and your reading
51 (provided you are significant) should be an essential
52 segment of your character and your life. Unlike the
53 the love we've made or meals we've eaten, books
54 congregate to form a record around us of what they've
55 fed our stomachs or our brains. These are not a
56 hunter's trophies but the living animals themselves.
57 In the ideal logotopia, every person would possess
58 his own library and add at least weekly if not daily to it.
59 The walls of each home would seem made of books;
60 wherever one looked one would only see spines;
61 because every real book (as opposed to dictionaries,
62 almanacs, and other compilations) is a mind, an
63 imagination, a consciousness. Together they com-
64 pose a civilization, or even several.
65 A few of us are fortunate enough to live in Logotopia,
66 to own our own library, but for many this is not possi-
67 ble, and for them we need a free and open public
68 institution with a balanced collection of books that it
69 cares for and loans, with stacks where a visitor may
70 wander, browse, and make discoveries; such an insti-
71 tution empowers its public as few do. In fact, it has no
72 rival, for the books in the public library are the books
73 that may take temporary residence in yours or mine.
74 We share their wealth the way we share the space of a
75 public park. My high school had no library worthy of
76 the name "book," so I would walk about a mile down-
77 town to the public one to borrow, in almost every case,
78 a new world. That's what a library does for its patrons.
79 It extends the self. It is pure empowerment.
80 The sciences, it is alleged, no longer use books;
81 neither do the professions, since what everyone
82 needs is data, data day and night, because data, like
83 drugs, soothe the senses and encourage us to think
84 we are, when at the peak of their heap, on top of the
85 world. Of course, libraries contain books, and books
86 contain information, but information has always been
87 of minor importance, except to minor minds. What
88 matters is how the information is arranged, how it is
89 understood, and to what uses it is put. In short, what
90 matters is the book the data's in.
91 Frequently, one comes across comparisons of the
92 electronic revolution with that of writing and printing,
93 and these are usually accompanied by warnings to
94 those suspicious of technology that objections to these
95 forward marches are both fuddy-duddy and futile. But
96 Plato's worries that writing would not reveal the writer
97 the way the soul of a speaker was exposed; that
98 spontaneity would be compromised; that words would
99 be stolen, and words would be put in other mouths
100 than those of their authors; that writing does not hear
101 its reader's response; that lying, hypocrisy, false
102 borrowing, ghostwriting, would increase so that the
103 hollow heads of state would echo with hired words;
104 and that, oddly, the advantages and powers of the book
105 would give power and advantage to the rich, who would
106 learn to read and would have the funds to acquire
107 and keep such precious volumes safe: these fears
108 were overwhelmingly realized.
109 The advent of printing was opposed (as writing was)
110 for a number of mean and self-serving reasons, but
111 the fear that it would lead to the making of a million
112 half-baked brains, and cause the illicit turning of a
113 multitude of untrained heads, as a consequence of the
114 unhindered spread of nonsense was a fear that was
115 also well founded. The boast that the placement of
116 books in many hands would finally overthrow supersti-
117 tion was not entirely a hollow hope, however. The gift
118 gave a million minds a chance at independence.
Question: The primary purpose of the passage is to...
honor the role that books have played in the author's life.
argue for the importance of re-reading treasured books.
assert the continuing significance of books in an electronic age.
establish a contrast between books and data.
outline how societal opinions of books have changed over time.
Question: The author mentions all of the following as examples of "Plato's worries" (line 96) about writing except that:
writing would synthesize and solidify the privileges of the upper class.
writing could result in more instances of plagiarism.
writing is by its very nature planned and premeditated.
writers would not be able to get feedback from those who read their writing.
writing might spread nonsensical ideas in the heads of the ignorant.
Read the following 2 passages carefully and answer the question.
1 Who will be the next American Idol? Rather, who will
2 be the next target of suppressed American dreams, a
3 vehicle through whom Americans experience vicar-
4 ious catharsis? Perhaps the popularity of this national
5 rock-star contest stems from our denial of our need
6 for self-expression, a denial which is exacerbated by
7 fifty-hour work weeks and the demands of our
8 spouses, children, and family. The once-a-week
9 hour-long session spent admiring talented youth
10 seems to be the only time we allot ourselves to
11 cleanse our emotional selves. Singing is, of course,
12 historically understood to be the heart of human
13 expression; perhaps many Americans have simply
14 found the empathetic outlet they need in their
15 stressful lives.
16 Last year, the hit show "American Idol," in which
17 talented singers compete in hopes of signing a record
18 deal, had over 10,000 discussion-based websites
19 devoted to it. "There have never been so many web-
20 sites created for a single show before," said Pat
21 Mildred, an expert on Internet trafficking. Ironically,
22 the majority of the posts were not show-related.
23 "There was a lot of online dating," added Mildred. "It
24 was more of a social-networking spot than anything
25 else." Any long-time fan can attest to the social
26 bonds that the show creates. "My family and I
27 watched it every night," said Anne, a local eighth
28 grader. "We never spend that much time together."
Question: Which generalization about "American Idol" is supported by both passages?
"American Idol" has cannily used the Internet to increase its viewership.
"American Idol" has increased in popularity with each season it has aired.
"American Idol" inspires discussion amongst those who watch it.
"American Idol" is extremely popular.
Viewers identify with the "American Idol" contestants.
1 Rebecca Benefiel stepped into the tiny dark room on
2 the first floor of the House of Maius Castricius. Mosqui-
3 toes whined. Huge moths flapped around her head.
4 And - much higher on the ick meter - her flashlight
5 revealed a desiccated corpse that looked as if it was
6 struggling to rise from the floor. Nonetheless, she
7 moved closer to the walls and searched for aberra-
8 tions in the stucco. She soon found what she was
9 looking for: a string of names and a cluster of num-
10 bers, part of the vibrant graffiti chitchat carried on by the
11 citizens of Pompeii before Mount Vesuvius erupted in
12 A.D. 79 and buried their city in a light pumice stone
13 called lapilli.
14 "There are a few hazards to this work," laughs Benefiel,
15 a 35-year old classicist from Washington and Lee
16 University who has spent part of the past six summers
17 in Pompeii. "Sometimes the guards forget to let me out
18 of the buildings at the end of the day!" Regardless,
19 she's always eager to return.
20 Vesuvius dumped ashes and lapilli on Pompeii for 36
21 hours, sealing the entire city up to an average height of
22 20 feet. Since the 18th century, archaeologists have
23 excavated about two-thirds, including some 109 acres
24 of public buildings, stores and homes. The city's well-
25 preserved first level has given archaeologists,
26 historians and classicists an unparalleled view of the
27 ancient world, brought to a halt in the middle of an
28 ordinary day.
29 From the very beginning, archaeologists noticed copi-
30 ous amounts of graffiti on the outsides of buildings.
31 In the late 1800s, scholars began making careful
32 copies of Latin inscriptions throughout the ancient
33 Roman world, including Pompeii, and cataloging them.
34 This effort is a boon to scholars like Benefiel, since
35 more than 90 percent of Pompeii's recorded graffiti
36 have since been erased by exposure to the elements.
37 Even though she studies this vast collection of
38 inscriptions, Benefiel prefers to wander the ancient
39 city and examine the remaining graffiti in context.
40 Much of what remains is on protected interior walls,
41 where servants, visitors and others took sharp
42 instruments to the stucco and left their mark. "The
43 graffiti would have been much more visible then
44 than they are now," she says. "Many of these walls
45 were brightly painted and highly decorated, and the
46 graffiti let the underlying white plaster show through."
47 In the ancient Roman world, graffiti was a respected
48 form of writing - often interactive - not the kind of
49 defacement we now see on rocky cliffs and bathroom
50 stalls. Inside elite dwellings like that of Maius Castri-
51 cius - a four-story home with panoramic windows
52 overlooking the Bay of Naples that was excavated in
53 the 1960s - she's examined 85 graffito. Some were
54 greetings from friends, carefully incised around the
55 edges of frescoes in the home's finest room. In a stair-
56 well, people took turns quoting popular poems and
57 adding their own clever twists. In other places, the
58 graffiti include drawings: a boat, a peacock, a leaping
60 The 19th century effort to document ancient graffiti
61 notwithstanding, scholars have historically ignored
62 the phenomenon. The prevailing attitude was
63 expressed by August Mau in 1899, who wrote, "The
64 people with whom we should most eagerly desire to
65 come into contact, the cultivated men and women of
66 the ancient city, were not accustomed to scratch their
67 names upon stucco or to confide their reflections and
68 experiences to the surface of a wall." But Benefiel's
69 observations show the opposite. "Everyone was doing
70 it," she says.
71 Benefiel's study of Pompeii's graffiti has revealed a
72 number of surprises. She's found that declarations of
73 love were every bit as common then as they are today
74 and that it was acceptable for visitors to carve their
75 opinions about the city into its walls. She's discovered
76 that the people of Pompeii loved displaying their
77 cleverness via graffiti, from poetry contests to playful
78 recombinations of the letters that form Roman
80 And she's found that Pompeians expressed far more
81 goodwill than ill will. "They were much nicer in their
82 graffiti than we are," she says. "There are lots of pair-
83 ings with the word 'felicter,' which means 'happily.'
84 When you pair it with someone's name, it means
85 you're hoping things go well for that person. There are
86 lots of graffiti that say 'Felicter Pompeii,' wishing the
87 whole town well."
Question: In which paragraph of the passage would the following sentence best fit?
"Many scholars of the time felt that the inscriptions were an unreliable source upon which the societal composition of Pompeii could be reconstructed."
Read The following passage carefully and answer.
1 The Clean Water Act of 1990 makes a distinction
2 between point and non-point sources of pollution. A
3 point source is one that can be easily quantified, such
4 as the discharge from a factory or from an electric-
5 generating facility; point sources also include sources
6 of urban runoff. A non-point source is more difficult to
7 quantify and usually encompasses a greater area; for
8 instance, pollution from agricultural fields is a non-
9 point source. Point sources have more strict regulation
10 and enforcement; therefore, cleaning up point sources
11 of pollution has progressed more quickly. Non-point
12 sources have been slower to improve, since looser
13 laws govern their discharge.
Question: As lines 2-6 and lines 6-9 are constructed, which of the following word(s) from lines 2-6 serves as a parallel to "agricultural fields" (line 8)?
point sources (line 5)
discharge (line 4)
factory (line 4)
one that can be easily quantified (line 3)
urban runoff (line 6)
1 From his studies of the British Constitution, French
2 political philosopher Montesquieu developed the the-
3 ory of separation of powers. Montesquieu argued that
4 the government, in order to guard against the arbitrary
5 exercise of power, should be divided into three distinct
6 departments: the executive, judiciary and legislature.
7 The Founding Fathers utilized separation of powers as
8 a basic tenet in forming the U.S. Constitution, which
9 vests legislative powers in Congress, judicial powers
10 in the Supreme Court and subsidiary courts, and
11 executive powers in the president and his delegates.
12 According to separation of powers, each branch has its
13 own functions, which theoretically prevents any branch
14 from encroaching upon another. Practice, however,
15 necessitates some overlap between branches. The
16 legislature may oppose and impeach members of the
17 executive, and the president may veto legislation. The
18 Supreme Court, whose members are appointed by the
19 president and approved by Congress, can judge the
20 actions of the other branches. Although one branch
21 tends to dominate the others historically, the "checks
22 and balances" of separation of powers ensures that
23 power shifts between them.
Question: From lines 1-3, we can infer that:
the British Constitution was powerless.
the British government is divided into separate branches.
Montesquieu was not the first person to come up with the separation of powers.
the American government is merely a replicate of the British government.
the British government also has a judicial, executive, and legislative branch.
1 Introversion is a personality attitude identified by the
2 Swiss psychologist Carl G. Jung. For people with a
3 preference for introversion, internal processing of an
4 experience is more important than the experience
5 itself; hence, introverts seek a lot of time alone to do
6 that processing. They can process in the presence of
7 others, but they must be detached and quiet so their
8 attention can be turned inward. A crucial thing to
9 understand about a relationship with an introvert
10 is not to take his or her need for "cave time" personally.
11 It is like a need for food or sleep.
12 Extroversion is also a personality attitude identified
13 by Carl Jung. Extroverts are talkative, enthusiastic,
14 sociable, and confident; they often have many friends.
15 They are very interested in the external world and want
16 to spend lots of their energy exploring it. They tend
17 to act first and think later, unlike introverts, who usually
18 do the opposite. They recharge by getting out of the
19 house, going out and being active.
20 Since we all have both an introvert and an extrovert
21 inside of us, we may be presented with only the extro-
22 verted side of someone when we first meet him or
23 her. Once you get to know an introvert better, he or she
24 may seem like a different person. The primary way to
25 identify a preference for introversion is to look at where
26 the person goes to recharge. If the person seeks soli-
27 tude, he or she is probably an introvert. (Note that extro-
28 verts have an introverted side that needs some quiet
29 time too; it's just not their primary orientation.)
30 Probably seventy-five percent of Americans are
31 extroverts, as you might guess from even a cursory
32 inspection of our advertising, news, and other
33 aspects of our culture. Not all societies are so
34 biased toward extroversion. American children
35 with a propensity for introversion may not be allowed
36 to indulge their preference; instead, they may be
37 encouraged to put their books down and go outside,
38 told by their parents to "get out there," "get involved,"
39 and "just do it."
40 Different eras and occasions of our life require us
41 to be more extroverted than others. For example,
42 adolescents, who are preparing to leave home
43 and meet new people, tend to be extroverts. However,
44 if an adolescent extrovert has not yet discovered
45 his or her introverted self, he or she will probably
46 find a healthy need for more downtime as he or she
47 ages. Jung believed that the psyche seeks balance. A
48 Jungian scholar writes, "Until we become thoroughly
49 aware of the inadequacy of our extroverted state and of
50 its insufficiency in regard to our deeper spiritual needs,
51 we shall not achieve even a measure of individuation,
52 through which a wider and more mature personality
Question: Which statement best summarizes the description of introverts compared to that of extroverts?
Introverts seek solitude, while extroverts seek external stimulation.
Introverts are less accepted by society, while extroverts are successful leaders of society.
Introverts enjoy indoor activities, while extroverts enjoy outdoor activities.
Introverts are antisocial, while extroverts are overly sociable.
Introverts are grown-up and sophisticated, while extroverts are immature and childish.
1 Being ashamed is a more ambivalent phenomenon
2 than the sense of shame. If discretion-shame sustains
3 the social ordering of the world, disgrace-shame is a
4 painful experience of the disintegration of one's world.
5 A break occurs in the self's relationship with itself
6 and/or others. The self is no longer whole, but divided.
7 It feels less than it wants to be, less than at its best it
8 knows itself to be. Sartre finds the effect of this
9 disruption so radical that he calls it an "internal
10 hemorrhage, the regrouping of all the objects in my
11 universe." Even when the advent of shame is less
12 dramatic, there is a disruption nonetheless that
13 manifests itself in a sense of confusion. The
14 disorientation that triggers shame always involves a
15 reflexive movement of consciousness. What is
16 actually experienced is a relation of distance. In some
17 cases the relation is interpersonal, between the self
18 and others who look at it; at other times the relation
19 occurs intrapersonally, as the self sees itself. In these
20 instances, the persons concerned are initially unself-
21 conscious, involved in, and given over to, an external
22 situation. They are conscious not of themselves, but of
23 the objects before them. But suddenly, the situation
24 changes, the mood is broken, and they are made
25 acutely aware of themselves as they are at that mo-
26 ment. Something happens that turns their attention to
27 themselves in such a way that they are not simply
28 there, but see themselves there, and this seeing
29 arouses shame.
30 Shame opens up a new level of consciousness of the
31 self. The undivided self in action gives way to the
32 doubled self. Shame is an act of self-attention. Each of
33 these elements of shame (disruption, disorientation,
34 and painful self-consciousness) manifests the rela-
35 tional character of the shame experience. This
36 relational nature of shame, in turn, contains a revel-
37 atory capacity. In the reflexive movement of conscious-
38 ness, a part of the self is revealed to the self. Sartre
39 has captured this quality of shame: "[Its] structure is
40 intentional; it is a shameful apprehension of some-
41 thing and this something is me. I am ashamed of
42 what I am. Shame therefore realizes an intimate rela-
43 tion of myself to myself. Through shame I have discov-
44 ered an aspect of my being. I recognize that I am as the
45 Other sees me."
Question: The best meaning of the word "radical" (line 9) is ________.
Read the following passage carefully and answer question at the bottom
1 Don Hedger had lived for four years on the top floor of
2 an old house on the south side of Washington Square,
3 and nobody had ever disturbed him. He occupied
4 one big room with no outside exposure except on the
5 north. His room was very cheerless, since he never
6 got a ray of direct sunlight; the south corners were
7 always in shadow. In the front corner, the one farther
8 from the window, was a sink, and a table with two
9 gas burners where he sometimes cooked his food.
10 There, too, in the perpetual dusk, was the dog's bed,
11 and often a bone or two for his comfort.
12 The dog was a Boston bull terrier, and Hedger
13 explained his surly disposition by the fact that he had
14 been bred to the point where it told on his nerves. His
15 name was Caesar III, and he had taken prizes at very
16 exclusive dog shows. When he and his master went
17 out to prowl about University Place, or to promenade
18 along West Street, Caesar III was invariably fresh and
19 shining. His pink skin showed through his mottled
20 coat, which glistened as if it had just been rubbed with
21 olive oil, and he wore a brass-studded collar, bought
22 at the smartest saddler's. Hedger, as often as not, was
23 hunched up in an old striped blanket coat, with a
24 shapeless felt hat pulled over his bushy hair, wearing
25 black shoes that had become gray, or brown ones
26 that had become black, and he never put on gloves
27 unless the day was biting cold.
28 Early in May, Hedger learned that he was to have a
29 new neighbor in the rear apartment. His studio was
30 shut off from these rooms by double doors, which,
31 though they were fairly tight, left him a good deal
32 at the mercy of the occupant. The rooms had been
33 leased, long before he came there, by a trained nurse
34 who considered herself knowing in old furniture. She
35 went to auction sales and bought up mahogany and
36 dirty brass and stored it away here, where she meant
37 to live when she retired from nursing. Meanwhile,
38 she sub-let her rooms, with the precious furniture, to
39 young people who came to New York to "write" or
40 "paint"--who proposed to live by the sweat of the
41 brow rather than of the hand, and who desired artistic
42 surroundings. When Hedger first moved in, these
43 rooms were occupied by a young man who tried to
44 write plays,--and who kept on trying until a week ago,
45 when the nurse had put him out for unpaid rent.
A few days after the playwright left, Hedger heard
47 an ominous murmur of voices through the bolted
48 double doors: the lady-like intonation of the nurse--
49 doubtless exhibiting her treasures--and another voice,
50 also a woman's, but very different; young, fresh,
51 unguarded, confident. All the same, it would be very
52 annoying to have a woman in there. The only bath-
53 room on the floor was at the top of the stairs in the
54 front hall, and he would always be running into her
55 as he came or went from his bath. He would have to
56 be more careful to see that Caesar didn't leave bones
57 about the hall, too; and she might object when he
58 cooked steak and onions on his gas burner.
59 As soon as the talking ceased and the women left,
60 he forgot them. He was absorbed in a study of para-
61 dise fish at the Aquarium, staring out at people through
62 the glass and green water of their tank. It was a
63 highly gratifying idea; the incommunicability of one
64 stratum of animal life with another,--though Hedger
65 pretended it was only an experiment with unusual
66 lighting. When he heard trunks knocking against the
67 sides of the narrow hall, then he realized that she was
68 moving in at once. Toward noon, groans and deep
69 gasps and the creaking of ropes, made him aware
70 that a piano was arriving. After the tramp of the
71 movers died away down the stairs, somebody touched
72 off a few scales and chords on the instrument, and
73 then there was peace. Presently he heard her lock her
74 door and go down the hall humming something; going
75 out to lunch, probably. He stuck his brushes in a can
76 of turpentine and put on his hat, not stopping to wash
77 his hands. Caesar was smelling along the crack
78 under the bolted doors.
79 Hedger encouraged him. "Come along, Caesar.
80 You'll soon get used to a new smell."
81 In the hall stood an enormous trunk, behind the
82 ladder that led to the roof, just opposite Hedger's
83 door. The dog flew at it with a growl of hurt amaze-
84 ment. They went down three flights of stairs and out
85 into the brilliant May afternoon.
86 Hedger strolled about the Square for the dog's health.
87 The fountain had but lately begun operations for the
88 season and was throwing up a mist of rainbow water.
89 Plump robins were hopping about on the soil; the
90 grass was newly cut and blindingly green. Looking
91 up the Avenue through the Arch, one could see the
92 young poplars with their bright, sticky leaves, and
93 shining horses and carriages,--occasionally an auto-
94 mobile, mis-shapen and sullen, like an ugly threat in
95 a stream of things that were bright and beautiful and
97 While Caesar and his master were standing by the
98 fountain, a girl approached them, crossing the Square.
99 Hedger noticed her because she wore a lavender cloth
100 suit and carried in her arms a big bunch of fresh lilacs.
101 He saw that she was young and handsome,--beautiful,
102 in fact. She, too, paused by the fountain and looked
103 back through the Arch up the Avenue. She smiled
104 rather patronizingly as she looked, and at the same
105 time seemed delighted. Her slowly curving upper lip
106 and half-closed eyes seemed to say: "You're gay,
107 you're exciting, you are quite the right sort of thing;
108 but you're none too fine for me!"
109 In the moment she tarried, Caesar stealthily ap-
110 proached her and sniffed at the hem of her lavender
111 skirt, then he ran back to his master and lifted a face
112 full of emotion and alarm, his lower lip twitching under
113 his sharp white teeth and his hazel eyes pointed with
114 a very definite discovery. He stood thus, motionless,
115 while Hedger watched the lavender girl go up the
116 steps and through the door of the house in which he
118 "You're right, my boy, it's she!"
Question: Which of the following phrases, if read figuratively, helps develop the author's characterization of Hedger?
"as if it had just been rubbed with olive oil" (lines 20-21)
"like an ugly threat in a stream of things that were bright and beautiful" (lines 94-95)
"and who kept on trying until a week ago" (line 44)
"a mist of rainbow water" (line 88)
"a face full of emotion and alarm" (lines 111-112)
Question: Don Hedger's "room" (line 4) can best be described as ________.
1 It has long been known that dolphins are intelligent
2 creatures with complex brains; however, recent studies
3 have shown that dolphins may be able to recognize
4 themselves in a mirror.
5 Such a finding would have major implications in the
6 study of evolutionary development, since very few
7 animals have demonstrated this ability. Between the
8 ages of 18-24 months, humans develop a sense of
9 mirror-self recognition (MSR). Studies have shown
10 that some primates, such as the chimpanzee and the
11 great ape, share this ability; however, attempts to prove
12 that non-primates can recognize their own reflections
13 have been unconvincing until now.
14 In their experiment, scientists Diana Reiss and Lori
15 Marino placed mirrors inside a pool housing two
16 dolphins that had been raised in captivity. They then
17 conducted a three-stage experiment. In the first stage,
18 they used a black ink marker to draw a geometric
19 shape on the dolphins' bodies in a place that they
20 could not see without the aid of a mirror. In the second,
21 they pretended to mark the dolphins with a sham
22 marker--an inkless marker that emits water. In the
23 control stage, the dolphins were left unmarked.
24 When the dolphins were marked, they immediately
25 swam to the mirror and spent a long time investigating
26 the area that had been marked. Sometimes they even
27 twisted and turned as they attempted to make the
28 marking visible in the mirror. When the dolphins were
29 sham marked, they displayed the same MSR behav-
30 iors, but spent less time investigating the marking in
31 front of the mirror, suggesting that they came to under-
32 stand the mark was a sham. Most other animals
33 would not display such behavior. Most often,
34 animals presented with a mirror show aggressive
35 social behavior, suggesting they think the figure in the
36 reflection is another animal.
37 Reiss and Marino claim that their study offers definitive
38 evidence that dolphins are capable of MSR. Thus, they
39 conclude, dolphins apparently have a sense of self
40 and a sense of the other, pointing to a psychological
41 complexity that few animals share. They also note that
42 this discovery is especially provocative because,
43 while human and primate brains have much in
44 common, human and dolphin brains feature some
45 significant differences due to divergent evolutionary
46 patterns. Therefore, they recommend further study into
47 the mental abilities and psychological complexities of
Question: The term "investigating" (line 25) most nearly means:
conducting an official inquiry.
looking over carefully.
Question: Why do Reiss and Marino think their finding is particularly exciting?
Their discovery shows that animals that have undergone different evolutionary changes can have the same abilities as humans.
Their discovery shows that humans and dolphins have evolved from the same animal.
Their discovery shows that dolphins are intelligent creatures.
Their discovery shows that few animals can recognize themselves in a mirror.
Their discovery shows that dolphins and humans have similar brains.
Even though Ms. Stevens had said she would not give any homework on the weekend of the prom, to her students' ________ she assigned a substantial amount.
Select the word that best completes the sentence.
1 He wondered at his riot of emotions of an hour
2 before. From what had it proceeded? From his
3 aunt's supper, from his own foolish speech, from the
4 wine and dancing, the merry-making when saying
5 good-night in the hall, the pleasure of the walk along
6 the river in the snow. Poor Aunt Julia! She would
7 soon be a shade. He had caught that haggard look
8 upon her face for a moment when she was singing
9 "Arrayed for the Bridal." Soon, perhaps, he would
10 be sitting in that same drawing-room, dressed in
11 black, his silk hat on his knees. The blinds would be
12 drawn down and Aunt Kate would be sitting beside
13 him, crying and blowing her nose and telling him how
14 Julia had died. He would cast about in his mind for
15 some words that might console her, and would find
16 only lame and useless ones. Yes, yes: that would
17 happen very soon.
Question: The change of mood in the passage from cheery to somber is best achieved by which of the following?
a change of setting
a change in point of view
the use of imagery
the use of irony
a shift in focus from Aunt Julia to Aunt Kate
1 Research focused on Sesame Street has provided
2 ample evidence to suggest that young children can
3 learn skills from the show, and that these skills will
4 contribute to their early educational success. Many
5 other programs produced by the Children's Television
6 Workshop, by public broadcasting stations, indepen-
7 dent producers, and state departments of education
8 have been constructed to teach educational concepts
9 ranging from reading to international understanding.
10 Related to these educational programs are prosocial
11 programs which model socially valued responses for viewers.
12 Even with the knowledge gained from research fo-
13 cused on television's ability to teach specific skills, the
14 medium is frequently castigated for interfering in the
15 education of children. However, the relationship be-
16 tween television viewing and academic performance is
17 not clear cut. Children who spend a great deal of time
18 watching television do poorly in school but children
19 who spend a moderate amount of time with TV perform
20 better than non-viewers. The small negative relation-
21 ship between IQ and television viewing masks some
22 important subgroup differences, such as age (high IQ
23 is positively correlated with viewing until the teens) and
24 gender (with the negative relationship holding stronger
25 for boys than for girls). Reading and television viewing
26 are positively correlated up to a threshold of about ten
27 hours of viewing per week. Only when television view-
28 ing rises above a certain level does it seem to be
29 related to less reading. Overall, the data suggest that
30 television has a small adverse effect on learning.
31 Socialization, especially sex role socialization, has
32 been a continuing concern because television so fre-
33 quently presents basic images of gender. In prime
34 time programming men outnumber women two or
35 three to one. Women are younger than men and tend
36 to be cast in more stereotypic roles, and tend to be
37 less active, more likely to be victimized, less aggres-
38 sive, and more limited in employment than men.
39 Children's programs are similarly sex stereotyped with
40 women generally underrepresented, stereotyped, and
41 less central to the program. Cultivation analysis sug-
42 gests that a relationship exists between viewing and
43 stereotypical conceptions about gender roles. Some
44 research examining race role socialization shows
45 similar patterns, suggesting that limited portrayals and
46 stereotyped roles can contribute to skewed percep-
47 tions by race. Although African-Americans have
48 frequently been portrayed negatively, other minority
49 groups such as Asians and Hispanics have simply
50 been missing from the screen world--a process some-
51 times called symbolic annihilation.
52 Beyond the content of fictional representations, all
53 parents would agree that children learn from television
54 advertising. Researchers initially assumed children
55 had minimal comprehension of the selling intent of
56 advertising and children verbally described advertise-
57 ment as an "informational service." Nonverbal mea-
58 sures, however, demonstrated that children under-
59 stood that commercials persuaded them to buy
60 products. Social scientists have studied a number of
61 potential effects of advertising. These include the
62 frequent requests for products, the modification of self-
63 esteem, the relations of advertising to obesity, and to
64 alcohol and cigarette consumption. This research has
65 been dominated by a deficit model in which children
66 are defined as unable to distinguish selling intent, or
67 as easily misled by what they see.
68 The average American child will witness 200,000
69 violent acts on television by age 18. TV violence
70 sometimes begs for imitation because violence is
71 often demonstrated and promoted as a fun and effec-
72 tive way to get what you want. And many violent acts
73 are perpetrated by the "good guys," whom children
74 have been taught to emulate. Even though children are
75 taught by their parents that it's not right to hit, television
76 says it's OK to bite, hit, or kick if you're the good guy.
77 Even the "bad guys" on TV aren't always held responsi-
78 ble or punished for their actions.
79 The images children absorb can also leave them
80 traumatized and vulnerable. According to research,
81 children ages 2 to 7 are particularly frightened by scary-
82 looking things like grotesque monsters. Simply telling
83 children that those images aren't real won't console
84 them, because they can't yet distinguish between fan-
85 tasy and reality. Kids ages 8 to 12 are frightened by the
86 threat of violence, natural disasters, and the victimi-
87 zation of children, whether those images appear on
88 fictional shows, the news, or reality-based shows.
89 Reasoning with children this age will help them, so it's
90 important to provide reassuring and honest inform-
91 ation to help ease your child's fears. However, you
92 may want to avoid letting your child view programs that
93 he or she may find frightening.
94 Alcohol ads on TV have actually increased over the last
95 few years and more underage children are being ex-
96 posed to them than ever. A recent study conducted by
97 the Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth (CAMY) at
98 Georgetown University found that the top 15 teen-
99 oriented programs in 2003 had alcohol ads. And
100 although they've banned cigarette ads on television,
101 kids and teens can still see plenty of people smoking
102 on programs and movies airing on TV. This kind of
103 "product placement" makes behaviors like smoking
104 and drinking alcohol seem acceptable. In fact, kids
105 who watch 5 or more hours of TV per day are far more
106 likely to begin smoking cigarettes than those who
107 watch less than the recommended 2 hours a day.
108 Health experts have long linked excessive TV-watching
109 to obesity - a significant health problem today. While
110 watching TV, children are inactive and tend to snack.
111 They're also bombarded with advertising messages
112 that encourage them to eat unhealthy foods such as
113 potato chips and empty-calorie soft drinks that often
114 become preferred snack foods. Too much educational
115 TV has the same indirect effect on children's health.
116 Even if children are watching 4 hours of quality edu-
117 cational television, that still means they're not exer-
118 cising, reading, socializing, or spending time outside.
119 But studies have shown that decreasing the amount
120 of TV children watched led to less weight gain and
121 lower body mass index (BMI - a measurement derived
122 from someone's weight and height).
Question: Which of the following statements captures the main difference between Passage 1 and Passage 2?
Passage 1 gives examples of high quality TV programs, while Passage 2 lists only the most harmful.
Passage 1 focuses on the social effects of TV, while Passage 2 focuses on its physical effects.
Passage 1 looks at TV from a more objective perspective than Passage 2.
Passage 1 focuses on TV's general effects on children, while Passage 2 focuses only on TV's harmful effects on children.
Passage 1 encourages children to watch more TV, while Passage 2 denounces TV as a societal problem.
1 Phonotactic rules, or constraints, govern which sounds
2 can or cannot combine in a given language. An English
3 speaker, for example, could easily decide, without
4 much thought, that "blong" is a possible English word,
5 and that "engob" is not, even though neither word
6 exists in the language. This is because the segment
7 "engob," though it is acceptable in other languages,
8 such as Burmese, is not acceptable in English. Knowl-
9 edge of phonotactic constraints arises from early
10 experience during infancy, but continues to grow and
11 change throughout life. In fact, one's phonotactic
12 knowledge may shift as one's language, or exposure
13 to that language, changes over a lifetime of linguistic
14 experience. Thus, a native speaker of English may
15 have a different representation of the phonotactic
16 constraints of his or her language later in life than he
17 or she did as an adolescent.
Question: Based on the information in lines 14-17, which of the following could also be true?
Adolescent speakers of English have different linguistic experiences than adolescents of other cultures.
Burmese speakers might not advance linguistically as quickly as English speakers.
"Blong" and "engob" are words that only appeal to adolescent speakers.
Older speakers of English might not deem "blong" a perfectly acceptable word.
Native English speakers have a greater memory for terminology later in life.
He was very ________ and would not comply with the request.
Alice may not have said anything, but because she continued to play the game, she gave ________ consent.
Despite living in a hedonistic society, Alan chose to pursue a(n) ________ lifestyle, free from materialism.
1 Since the dawn of fashion in the West some seven
2 hundred years ago, probably no other article of clothing
3 has in the course of its evolution more fully served as a
4 vehicle for the expression of ambivalences and
5 ambiguities than blue jeans. Some of the social history
6 supporting this statement is by now generally well
7 known. First fashioned in the mid-nineteenth-century
8 American West by Morris Levi Strauss, a Bavarian
9 Jewish peddler newly arrived in San Francisco, the
10 trousers, then as now, were made from a sturdy,
11 indigo-based cotton cloth said to have originated in
12 Nimes, France. A garment similar to that manufactured
13 by Levi Strauss for gold-miners and outdoor laborers
14 is said to have been worn earlier in France by sailors
15 and dockworkers from Genoa, Italy, who were referred
16 to as "genes;" hence the term "jeans." The distinctive
17 copper riveting at the pants pockets and other stress
18 points was the invention of Jacob Davis, a tailor from
19 Carson City, Nevada, who joined the Levi Strauss firm
20 in 1873, some twenty years after the garment's intro-
21 duction. Years later the working man's garment
22 attained the prominence and near-universal recogni-
23 tion it possesses today. For it was not until the late
24 1960s that blue jeans, after several failed moves in
25 previous decades into a broader mass market, strik-
26 ingly crossed over nearly all class, gender, age,
27 regional, national, and ideological lines to become the
28 universally worn and widely accepted item of apparel
29 they are today. And since the crossover, enthusiasm
30 for them has by no means been confined to North
31 America and Western Europe. In former Soviet bloc
32 countries and much of the Third World, too, where they
33 have generally been in short supply, they remain highly
34 sought after and hotly bargained over.
35 A critical feature of this cultural breakthrough is, of
36 course, blue jeans' identity change from a garment
37 associated exclusively with work (and hard work, at
38 that) to one invested with many of the symbolic
39 attributes of leisure: ease, comfort, casualness,
40 sociability, and the outdoors. Or, as the costume
41 historians Jasper and Roach-Higgins (1987) might put
42 it, the garment underwent a process of cultural
43 authentication that led to its acquisition of meanings
44 quite different from those with which it began. In
45 bridging the work/leisure divide when they did, jeans
46 tapped into the new, consumer-goods-oriented,
47 postindustrial affluence of the West on a massive
48 scale. Soon thereafter jeans penetrated those many
49 other parts of the world that emulate the West.
Question: In line 29, the word "crossover" refers to:
the manner in which blue jeans had, during the late 1960s, finally made their way into the mainstream international apparel market.
the research conducted by historians Jasper and Roach-Higgins about the cultural significance of blue jeans.
the addition of the copper riveting created by Jacob Davis of Carson City, Nevada to the pants pockets of the original blue jeans fashioned by Strauss.
the emigration of Morris Levi Strauss from Bavaria to San Francisco.
the similarities between Strauss' blue jeans and the work uniforms worn by French sailors and dockworkers from Genoa.