When describing the male urinary anatomy, which information should the nurse include? The portion of the male urethra that is closest to the bladder is the _____ portion.
While planning care for a patient with urinary problems, the nurse recalls that the renin-angiotensin system will be activated by:
Elevated sodium concentrations
Increased blood volume
Decreased blood pressure in the afferent arterioles
When the nurse is discussing the functional unit of the kidney, what other term should the nurse use?
A 35-year-old hypertensive male begins taking a diuretic. Which of the following common side effects of this medication should the nurse monitor?
Increased uric acid secretion
When the nurse is discussing the sodium-sensing cells of the glomerulus, what term should the nurse use?
Loop of Henle
A 28-year-old female presents with fever, chills, and flank pain. She is diagnosed with pyelonephritis. A nurse recalls the patient’s infection is located in the:
A 42-year-old male is involved in a motor vehicle accident during which he loses a lot of blood. The nurse realizes he is in acute renal failure caused by:
Immune complex deposition in the glomerulus
Obstruction of the proximal tubule
Inadequate renal blood flow
A 60-year-old male is diagnosed with renal failure. While the nurse is reviewing lab results, which of the following lab values would be most consistent with this diagnosis?
Decreased plasma potassium level
Elevated plasma creatinine level
Increased urea clearance
A 45-year-old female presents with hypertension, anorexia, nausea and vomiting, and anemia. She is diagnosed with chronic renal failure. When the patient asks what caused this anemia, how should the nurse respond? Your anemia is caused by:
Red blood cells being lost in the urine
Inadequate production of erythropoietin
Red blood cells being injured as they pass through the glomerulus
Inadequate iron absorption in the gut
A 42-year-old female is diagnosed with chronic renal failure, and the nurse is discussing dietary treatment. Which information indicates the nurse understands dietary regimen? Treatment includes restricting:
When a patient asks what the most common type of renal stones is composed of, how should the nurse respond? The most common type of renal stone is composed of:
A 25-year-old female presents with burning urination. She was diagnosed with a urinary tract infection. When the nurse checks the culture results, which of the following organisms is most likely infecting her urinary tract?
Upon examination of a male infant, it is determined that the urethral meatus is located on the undersurface of the penis. The nurse will document this condition as:
Which of the following clusters of symptoms would make a clinician suspect a child has developed glomerulonephritis?
Dysuria, urinary frequency, and abdominal tenderness
Pyuria, fever, and abdominal pain
Proteinuria, hypotension, and ascites
Gross hematuria, flank pain, and hypertension
A 7-year-old male presents to his primary care provider for incontinence. His mother indicates that he has never been continent. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis the nurse will observe on the chart?
Primary enuresis (incontinence)
A 15-year-old female presents with flank pain, irritability, malaise, and fever. Tests reveal glomerulonephritis. When the parents ask what could have caused this, how should the nurse respond?
Which information indicates the nurse has a good understanding of female anatomy? Having ejected a mature ovum, the ovarian follicle then develops into:
A corpus luteum
An atretic follicle
A theca cell
Which information indicates the nurse has a good understanding of progesterone? Progesterone is primarily secreted by the:
A clinician is preparing to teach about spermatogenesis. Which information should the clinician include? Spermatogenesis occurs in the:
When a staff member asks the nurse what the thick middle layer of the uterine wall is called, what is the nurse’s best response? The:
In the majority of cases delayed puberty is due to:
A disruption of the pituitary
A disruption in the hypothalamus
Ambiguity in sex determination
A 21-year-old female is infected with human papillomavirus (HPV) following unprotected sexual intercourse with a male she recently met. She is now at higher risk of developing which of the following cancers?
Cryptorchidism can be defined as:
An abnormal state in which the testes are overdeveloped
Lack of a scrotum
Problems with testicular descent
A normal developmental state of the testes
A middle-aged male speaks to his physician about benign BPH. He reveals that his father was recently diagnosed with this condition, and he wants to know if he could have it. The physician tells him that a common complaint from men with mild to moderate BPH is:
Decreased urinary stream
The patient’s medication has a side effect of gynecomastia. The patient asks the nurse to define this term. The nurse would respond that gynecomastia is:
Overdevelopment of breast tissue in males
Inflammation of the mammary glands in lactating women
A type of breast cancer
Lack of breast development in women
A 25-year-old female presents with amenorrhea and hirsutism. She is diagnosed with PCOS. Lab testing will most likely reveal:
Genetic cancerous mutations
A 30-year-old female with newly diagnosed PCOS is being counseled by her OB-GYN. The physician indicates that this condition often results in:
Pelvic inflammatory disease
A 23-year-old sexually active female presents with white copious discharge and itch. She is diagnosed with yeast vaginitis caused by overgrowth of which microorganism?
The descent of the bladder and the anterior vaginal wall into the vaginal canal is called a:
A 40-year-old female presents with cramping and excessive vaginal bleeding. Ultrasound reveals benign uterine tumors in the smooth muscle cells of the myometrium. These tumors are commonly called:
Which sphincter prevents reflux of digested material from the colon into the small intestine?
The ileum and jejunum are suspended by folds of the peritoneum known as the _____ that contains an extensive vascular and nervous network.
In the liver, free bilirubin moves from the plasma in the sinusoids into the hepatocytes, where it is converted into:
The exocrine portion of the pancreas contains:
Islets of Langerhans
Alpha cells- glucagon
Beta cells- insulin
The nursing student is teaching a class to second graders. The student would correctly identify that food moves down the esophagus via the process termed:
A 10-month-old is brought to the pediatrician by the mother who states the baby has been experiencing colicky pain followed by vomiting, sweating, nausea, and irritability. Testing reveals a condition in which one part of the intestine telescopes into another. From which type of intestinal obstruction is he suffering?
A 20-year-old male was recently diagnosed with lactose intolerance. He eats an ice cream cone and develops diarrhea. His diarrhea can be classified as _____ diarrhea.
Clinical manifestations of bile salt deficiencies are related to poor absorption of:
Fats and fat-soluble vitamins
A 30-year-old obese female underwent gastric resection in an attempt to lose weight. Which of the following complications could the surgery cause?
Acid reflux gastritis
Which of the following symptoms would help a health care provider distinguish between ulcerative colitis and Crohn disease?
Pattern of remission/exacerbations
A 16-year-old female presents with abdominal pain in the right lower quadrant. Physical examination reveals rebound tenderness and a low-grade fever. A possible diagnosis would be:
A 54-year-old male complains that he has been vomiting blood. Tests reveal portal hypertension. Which of the following is the most likely cause of his condition?
Left ventricular failure
Thrombosis in the spleen
Cirrhosis of the liver
Manifestations associated with hepatic encephalopathy from chronic liver disease are the result of:
Decreased cerebral blood flow
Hyperbilirubinemia and jaundice
Fluid and electrolyte imbalances
Impaired ammonia metabolism
An increase in the rate of red blood cell breakdown causes which form of jaundice?
A 55-year-old female has general symptoms of gallstones but is also jaundiced. IV cholangiography would most likely reveal that the gallstones are obstructing the:
Intrahepatic bile canaliculi
Common bile duct
Reflux esophagitis is defined as a(n):
Inflammatory response to gastroesophageal reflux
Secretory response to hiatal hernia
Immune response to gastroesophageal reflux
Which of the following gastrointestinal (GI) clinical manifestations is subjective? (Select all that apply.)
Prolonged diarrhea is more serious in children than adults because:
Children have lower adipose reserves.
Children are more resistant to antimicrobial therapy.
Children have a lower metabolic rate.
Fluid reserves are lower in children.
Which condition should the nurse assess for in mothers carrying fetuses affected by esophageal malformations?
Excessive amniotic fluid
Foul smelling vaginal discharge
Short umbilical cords
A mother brings her 2-week-old infant to the pediatrician because he vomits forcefully for no apparent reason and food sometimes is regurgitated as though undigested. The infant is most likely suffering from:
A 2-month-old female with Down syndrome is diagnosed with Hirschsprung disease following family complaints of chronic constipation. The most likely cause of these symptoms is:
Additional ganglia throughout the length of the colon
Absence of ganglia along the length of the colon
Excessive use of glycerin suppositories to promote bowel elimination
The use of cow’s milk instead of formula
When a staff member asks the nurse about the contractile unit of a muscle, how should the nurse reply? The contractile unit of a muscle cell is called the:
When the nurse is using the term “sarcopenia,” what is the nurse describing? It is the:
Age-related loss in skeletal muscle
Absence of muscle cells
Muscles that are unable to contract
Fatigue of muscle cells
While planning care for a patient with muscle problems, which information should the nurse remember? _____ ions directly control the contraction of muscles.
The nurse observed the patient’s muscle contracted, but the limb did not move. How should the nurse chart this muscle contraction?
Which of the following clinical findings would be expected in the patient with rhabdomyolysis?
Lower extremity swelling
Yellow color to the skin
A 70-year-old female presents with a hip fracture. She is diagnosed with osteoporosis. One factor that most likely contributed to her condition is:
Increased androgen levels
Decreased estrogen levels
Excessive dietary calcium
A disorder similar to osteomalacia that occurs in growing bones of children is termed:
A 54-year-old female was recently diagnosed with degenerative joint disease. This condition is characterized by loss of:
The joint capsule
Researchers now believe that RA is:
A complication of rheumatic fever
Curable with antiviral agents
An autoimmune disease
Related superficial joint injury
A 46-year-old male presents with severe pain, redness, and tenderness in the right big toe. He was diagnosed with gouty arthritis. The symptoms he experienced are caused by the crystallization of _____ within the synovial fluid.
A 32-year-old male was injured in a motor vehicle accident and confined to bed for 3 weeks. During this time, the size and strength of muscle fibers decreased, a condition referred to as:
A 70-year-old female with osteoporosis fractures her leg at a location of preexisting abnormality. She reports that the fracture occurred following a minor fall. Which of the following best describes the fracture?
Fibromyalgia is a chronic musculoskeletal disorder characterized by:
Muscle pain in the back and gastrointestinal symptoms
Neurologic pain in the skeletal muscles
Diffuse pain, fatigue, and tender points
Pain resulting from joint and muscle inflammation
Ewing sarcoma originates from:
The bone marrow
Children with OI (osteogenesis imperfecta) suffer from frequent:
Tinea corporis (ringworm) is a _____ infection of the skin.
A 20-year-old female presents with vaginal itch and thin-walled pustular lesions. She is diagnosed with candidiasis. This condition is caused by a:
When assessing a patient with scleroderma, which changes in the skin will be observed?
A 40-year-old female is diagnosed with skin cancer. Her primary care provider explains that the most important risk factor for skin cancer is:
Lifetime amount of sun exposure
Amount of sun exposure over age 50
Living in equatorial regions where the sun is most intense
Amount of direct sun exposure at a young age
In burn injury patients, the rule of nines and the Lund and Browder chart are used to estimate:
Total body surface area burned
Depth of burn injury
Possibility of infection
Degree of systemic involvement
A 30-year-old male firefighter is badly burned and is admitted to the emergency department. Which of the following would be expected in the first 24 hours?
Decreased levels of stress hormones
Increased capillary permeability
Rubella, rubeola, and roseola are common communicable diseases caused by _____ infection.
If a woman has a 28 day menstrual cycle, when will ovulation occur?
The last day of menstruation
A 40 year old patient is admitted to the hospital with a diagnosis of acute pancreatitis? What lab values would you expect to find?
Elevated amylase and lipase
Elevated AST and ALT