The process of intensified compression and increasing consciousness of the world
The rapid expansion and intensified consciousness of the world
The homogenisation of global cultures
The system of intensified compression and increasing consciousness of the world
Time and space compression is...
The phenomenon altering time and space relations due to the rapid increase in technology allowing communication to travel faster, making the world seem smaller
The earth is slowly moving closer to the sun, causing space to appear more compressed and time to speed up
Two-way flow/process of globalisation
when you move further away from the core of 'civilisation,' society becomes more backwards
Glocalisation is thinking global, but acting local
What are the four facilitating factors of intercultural exchange discussed in the lecture?
Colonisers 'form a community' by 'un-forming/re-forming' the existing colonised community.
The difference between postcolonialism and post-colonialism is...
Postcolonialism is ideological, while post-colonialism is temporal
With post-colonialism, countries can still be culturally and economically neo-colonised, but formally decolonised. Postcolonialism on the other hand, is completely free of its colonisers influence
Postcolonialism is characterised by different experiences within/between countries, while post-colonialism is concerned with the education, literature, and linguistic experience
Postcolonialism is the process of decolonisation, while post-colonialism is the result of decolonisation
While colonialism includes imperialism, imperialism does not require colonialism.
Which one describes postcolonial theory?
A new way of analysing text by re-reading traditional English literature for colonial themes and discourse and the analysis of representations of colonised subjects
"Ways that representations and modes of perception are used as fundamental weapons of colonial power to keep colonised people subservient to colonial rule." It is the colonisation of the mind
It emphasises unity in diversity, making specific, national differences less important than grand, abstract, universal concerns through a humanist approach
What is the subaltern?
Those in the lowest social position, outside hegemonic power structures of colonial powers
Those in the highest social position, operate within the hegemonic power structure but oppose colonial powers
Indigenous language that has been marginalised and associated with backwardness and barbarianism
Language or dialect used often only by those in the lowest social position as a result of colonial language policy
The usage-based approach to language is characterised by...
Reading the intention of others
Joint attention and social interaction
Shared structure of languages
Cognitive abilities developed through socio-cultural factors
All humans have the ability to learn a language
Language forms knowledge about the self and social world
Weak hypothesis of the Linguistic Relativity Principle suggests that the structure of language determines thoughts.
Galton's problem stated that...
Different cultures develop and adopt similar characteristics as a result of cultural exchange, not independently as previously believed
Modernity and modernism is a western phenomena and that it is incorporated by non-western cultures
Everything obeys the laws of market
Societies take on patterns of rationalisation, breaking down tasks into smaller tasks for production
How people use context to understand knowledge of human behaviour needed to interpret interactions
How people use their knowledge of human behaviour to understand the context of interactions
How people use interactions to interpret to understand the context of human behaviours
How people use their knowledge of communications to avoid misunderstandings
Which best characterises opinions of the anti-globalisation movement towards globalisation? (can pick more than one)
Against the neo-liberal aspect of globalisation
No globalisation without representation
Fear of fragmentation
Spread of western modernism and colonialism
Reinforcing the ideas of the 'other' and backwardness of non-western civilisations
Form of neo-imperialism
Fear of homogenisation
Against all global networks
Which are communication strategies used to avoid miscommunication discussed in the lectures?
Indicating need for repair
Try to reformulate
Ask for confirmation
Ask for clarification
Use gestures to help convey message
Switch to different language
Draw pictures or write it down
Which answer describes a lingua franca?
Language used for communication between speakers that do not share a native tongue
Language spoken around the world by populations other than those associated with them
Language spoken by most of the worlds population, serving as a medium of literacy and other forms of cultural life
Language of public signage
The outer circle in the three circles of Englishes represents those who use English as a foreign language.
What are the three main types of colonisation?
Progressive territorial expansion, exploitation of bodies, and colonisation of the mind
Conservative ideology, territorial expansion, and exploitation of resources
Reactionary political ideology, exploitation of resources, and expansion of power
Linguistic, colonisation of the mind, and capitalist economy
Linguistic imperialism favours one language over others in a way that parallels societal structures.
Three important actors in linguistic imperialism discussed in the lecture are...
Private linguistic institutions
Small community organisations
School and educational instututes
What have we learnt from post colonial linguistics?
That post-colonial nations with linguistically diverse citizens recognise the importance of European languages for wider communication
An explanation of perceived language and use, such as beliefs about articulation and rationalisation or justification
An investigation of social and ideological significance of language and conception in nature of language and use
It underpins ethnic struggles
Which best describes 'art as panhuman'?
Inherently global feature, motivated by art for art's sake
Art ties in with economics and politics,a representation of primitivism and/or cultural heritage and identity
Refers to culture and globalisation were we ascribe more value to art, defamiliarise subjects, and challenge the ideological hegemony
Art occurs all around the world, often serving religious functions, capturing the essence of the subject in the images and therefore controlling them
What were the three types of portraitures?
Generic, emblematic, and representational
Characteristic, symbolic, and representational
Idiosyncrasy, emblematic, and represntation
Symbolic, rendering, and depction
Globalisation is a process, not a system.
What were the three identity subjects described by Hall?
The uncanny valley theory shows us that as objects with human features look more like natural human beings, there is a dip in familiarity and a feeling of revulsion amongst people.
What were the three blows to human ego
The earth is not the centre of the universe
The human species is not unique
The human mind is not entirely in control
Emotions are not rational
Some developments are universal
What best describes 'anti-globalisation?' (can pick more than one
Shift towards counter-globalisation
Against formation of global networks
Form of western neo-imperialism
Against the capitalist nature of globalisation
In the lecture, we discussed that cultural globalisation is the mixing of contemporary enabled by what? (can pick more than one)
Patterns of population movement
Generalised accelerating globalisation
Globalisation of electronic communications
Patterns of population growth
Changes in societal structures
Innovations in popular culture in media
In all the definitions of colonialism given, there is no mention of the indigenous people.
What did the psychopathology of colonisation discuss?
The socio-psychological effects of colonialism and the objectification of people with different skin colour
The socio-psychological effect of colonialism and the stripping of natural resources and exploitation of colonised lang and people
The psychological impact of linguistic imperialism and colonial language policy on the indigenous people
The psychological impact on society as a result of globalisation and the implementation of capitalist economic systems
The Holy Trinity of Postcolonial Theory is composed up of which 3 theorists?
Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak
Mimicry is the breakdown of authority of the coloniser by the colonised through appropriating elements of the coloniser, intervening with the traditional power structure.
What are the five 'scapes' described by Appadurai?
Ethnoscape: peoples' movements
Mediascape: media and how it represents the world
Technoscape: global configuration of the world
Financescape: distribution of global capital
Ideoscape: distribution of ideologies
Politiscape: political structure within a community
Globalscape: globalisation and how it effects the world
Telescape: communications and how innovations change rate of information distribution
Acculturation is the west incorporating non-western cultural aspects into own culture.
What are the three linguistic frames of reference?
Relative, absolute, and intrinsic
Comparative, definitive, and intrinsic
Relative, definitive, and inherent
Definitive, intrinsic, and inherent
Communicative competence is the knowledge of how to communicate in certain situations.
Pragmatic failure is a misunderstanding that arises from the inability to understand a speech act as a result of grammar.
Which describes sociopragmatic failure?
Caused by cross-culturally different assessments of social distance, power relations, rights and obligations, impositions, taboo subjects etc. It is associated with the cross-culture iceberg because some cultural context is primarily in awareness but most out of awareness
Force assigned to a certain linguistic structure which does not correspond to the normally assigned one in a native culture
Teacher-induced error; transfer is done in the preferred way of native language, which is not how it would be commonly said in the target language
What are the four typologies of multilingualism?
What is the posthuman predicament?
The blurring of boundaries between humans, animals, and technology
The importance of quantifying self
Identity is unstable and fragmented
The increasing importance of space relations
Plessner claims that the difference between living and inanimate objects is that life is embodied and has boundaries, while inanimate objects have contours which we ascribe to them.
What are the three stages of embodiment?
Which of the following describes extrahumanism?
Individual human enhancement
Creating new life and genetic modification
Creating artificial life forms
All of the above
Capitalism and globalisation are used (incorrectly) interchangeable as a result of a semantic shift.
Globalisation is seen as paradoxical because it is presented as global, but theorised as anti-western.
A paradigm shift in the globalisation process can be seen in the following...(can pick more than one)
Decline is uneven
Erosion of southern nation states
Northern states making a comeback
Erosion of the democratic system
Criticisms of the capitalist system
How is education used as a tool for implementing colonial language policy? (can pick more than one)
Privileging/enforcing dominant language over others
Westernising a small segment of the population
Elevate prestige of indigenous language
Manipulate the linguistic periphery
Minority languages represent what elements? (can pick more than one)
Which of the following is not a main actor in minority languages discussed in the lecture?
None of the above
Which is not a global impact of minorities that was discussed in the lecture?
International organisation/external influences agendas
Language is a powerful force in religious change and the spread of religion.
In the lecture, we discussed that language and religion is multi-faceted for which of the following reasons?
It addresses the status of particular languages in particular religions
Religion is considered taboo
Religion impacts language planning
Religious eduction impacts language use
Structural functionalism concerns...(can pick more than one)
Effects of religion on language
Mutuality of religion and language
Effects of language on religion
Language, religion, and literacy
Effects of religion and language on social stratification
Language, religion, and colonial exploitation