PMU - Year 1 Physics - Part 4(B)

Question 1 of 46

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Most effective imaging method for detection of bone metastases is:

Select one of the following:

  • Echography

  • SPECT

  • Roentgenography

Question 2 of 46

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Radionuclide technetium-99m (99mTc) is used for:

Select one of the following:

  • Radiotherapy

  • "In Vivo" radionuclide diagnostic

  • Active medium for laser generation

Question 3 of 46

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SPECT diagnostics method is based on:

Select one of the following:

  • Ultrasound

  • Laser Radiation

  • Radiopharmaceuticals

Question 4 of 46

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Radiopharmaceuticals are:

Select one of the following:

  • Sealed-radioactive sources

  • Chemical compounds containing radioactive nuclides

  • Contrast substances used in Roentgen diagnostics

Question 5 of 46

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Collimation stage in SPECT:

Select one of the following:

  • Provides spatial resolution

  • Reduces radiation load on pateints

  • Reduces the cost of diagnostic examination

Question 6 of 46

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NaI crystals routinly used in gamma cameras:

Select one of the following:

  • Are between 6 and 12mm thick

  • Have high photoelectric absorption at 140 KeV

  • Convert about 5% of absorbed energy into light

  • Have an intrinsic resolution of several mm

  • All of the above

Question 7 of 46

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Select the INCORRECT answer. "The eluate of technetium-99m generator can be used for a limited time, only in the day of elution, because:

Select one of the following:

  • The activity of 99mTc in the eluate must be much greater than the activity its daughter nuclide technetium-99

  • To meet the requirements for radionuclide purity

  • The eluate must be sterile

Question 8 of 46

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Radionuclide purity means:

Select one of the following:

  • The radiopharaceutical does not contain chemical impurities

  • The radiopharaceutical does not contain radionuclides other than the labeled

  • Both A and B

Question 9 of 46

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Iofetamine (123I) is a radiopharaceutical drug used in cerebral blood perfusion imaging with SPECT. What is the final product of 123I decay chain?

Select one of the following:

  • Alpha

  • Beta-plus

  • Beta-minus

  • Gamma

Question 10 of 46

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Which of the following three effects is used in PET:

Select one of the following:

  • Photoelectric absorption

  • Compton scattering

  • Electron-positron annihilation

Question 11 of 46

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PET apparatus is set up to detect:

Select one of the following:

  • Photons emitted in transitions from metastable to stable energy states

  • Electron and positron particles, formed near radionuclides in patients body

  • Photons emitted from annihilation (e- + e+) and radiated simultaneously in opposite directions

Question 12 of 46

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Which imaging diagnostic method use electron-positron annihilation?

Select one of the following:

  • PET

  • Echography

  • CT

  • Roentgenoscopy

Question 13 of 46

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Patients radiation load in PET is considerably lower compared to SPECT because:

Select one of the following:

  • PET does not use collimators

  • Annihilation radiation in PET has a relatively high energy

  • PET uses beta-plus radionuclides

Question 14 of 46

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Positron emission involves the ejection of:

Select one of the following:

  • An alpha-particle

  • A beta-minus particle

  • A beta-plus particle

  • A proton and neutron

Question 15 of 46

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Which type of radioactivity is related to PET diagnostics:

Select one of the following:

  • Beta-plus

  • Beta-minus

  • Alpha

Question 16 of 46

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Dosimetry unit defined only for photon radiations and only for interaction in air:

Select one of the following:

  • Effective dose

  • Equivalent dose

  • Exposure

  • Absorbed dose

Question 17 of 46

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Exposure (dosimetric quanitity) is defined for:

Select one of the following:

  • All ionising radiation and all matter

  • Charged particles in water

  • Photon radiations to energy below 3 MeV in air

  • Photon radiations of all energies acting in air

Question 18 of 46

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Kerma (Kinetic energy released in matter) is defined for:

Select one of the following:

  • All ionising radiation

  • Photons and neutrons

  • Only photon radiation

  • Charged particles

Question 19 of 46

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Which of the following is defined as Kerma (K) of ionising radiation:

Select one of the following:

  • Energy / Mass

  • Charge / Mass

  • Energy / Time

Question 20 of 46

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Universal dosimetric unit defined for all types of radiation and absorption media:

Select one of the following:

  • Exposure

  • Absorbed dose

  • Total electrical charge in a volume of substance

Question 21 of 46

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The correct units of absorbed dose are:

Select one of the following:

  • J/kg, called Gy

  • C/kg

  • J/kg called Sv

Question 22 of 46

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Which of the following refers to the effective dose rate:

Select one of the following:

  • Effective dose/Mass

  • Effective dose/Time

  • Effective dose/Volume

Question 23 of 46

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Which of the following refers to the Kema rate:

Select one of the following:

  • Charge / Time

  • Energy / Time

  • K / Time

Question 24 of 46

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Tissue weighting factor (wt) account for the radio-biological effect of:

Select one of the following:

  • Type of energy of radiation

  • Specific radio-sensitivity of tissues and organs

  • Radiation exposure time

Question 25 of 46

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Radiation weighting factor (wr) accounts for the radio-biological effect of:

Select one of the following:

  • Radiation exposure time:

  • Type and energy of radiation

  • Specific radio-sensitivity of tissues and organs

Question 26 of 46

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Which radiation detectors is used for the calibration of both Linear accelerator and Cobolt units used in radiation therapy

Select one of the following:

  • Semi-conducting and scintillation

  • Photographic

  • Ionization chamber

  • Chemical

Question 27 of 46

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Thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD) are used for radiation exposure measurements of:

Select one of the following:

  • Staff personnel

  • In Vivo dosimetry (during irradiation)

  • In phantom dosimetry (using phantom for treatment plane verification)

  • All of the above

Question 28 of 46

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Which detectors are used as dosimeters for medical personnel (More than one answer)

Select one or more of the following:

  • Scintillation detectors

  • Film badge (photographic) dosimeters

  • TLD (Thermoluminescent dosimeters)

  • Chemical dosimeters

Question 29 of 46

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60Co used in radiotherapy, has approx half-life T1/2 of:

Select one of the following:

  • 5 min

  • 5 h

  • 5 a

Question 30 of 46

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X-ray tubes made for therapeutic applications have a stationary anode, which x-ray tubes used for diagnostics have a rotating anode. Why is that?

Select one of the following:

  • Therapeutic x-ray tubes do not require high resolution

  • Therapeutic x-ray tubes have higher efficiency and generate less heat

  • Therapeutic x-ray rubes have lower efficiency and target has a greater area

  • All of the above

Question 31 of 46

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Radiation dose reaches a maximum near the skin surface for:

Select one of the following:

  • 60Co gamma ray

  • Linac, Electron mode of operation

  • Linac, Photon mode of operation

Question 32 of 46

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Radiation dose peaks at maximum depth for treatment with:

Select one of the following:

  • Cobalt units

  • Linac, photon mode of operation

  • Linac, Electron mode of operation

Question 33 of 46

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Percent depth dose (PDD) is:

Select one of the following:

  • The ratio between two absorption doses

  • The difference between two absorption doses

  • The sum between two absorption doses

Question 34 of 46

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For which type of radiation the term skin-sparing effect is not applicable:

Select one of the following:

  • Gamma rays

  • High energy photon beams (from Linac)

  • High energy electron beams (from Linac)

Question 35 of 46

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Radionuclide used for radiotherapy of thyroid cancer:

Select one of the following:

  • Technetium - 99m (99mTc)

  • Iodine-131 (131I)

  • Iodine-123 (123I)

Question 36 of 46

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What radionuclide delivery methods are used in brachytherapy

Select one of the following:

  • Sealed (encapsulated)

  • Unsealed (soluble)

  • Both A and B

Question 37 of 46

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BNCT therapy is a method used:

Select one of the following:

  • 10B and a low energy photon beam

  • 10B and a low energy proton beam

  • 10B and a low energy neutron beam

Question 38 of 46

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Which two imaging methods do not expose patients to radiation risk:

Select one of the following:

  • Roentgenography and echography

  • Radionuclides for in vivo diagnostics and x-ray imaging

  • Echography and Magnetic-resonance tomography

  • Magnetic-resonance tomography and PET

Question 39 of 46

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Monitoring and measuring a persons exposure to radiation is called:

Select one of the following:

  • Densitometry

  • Personal dosimetry

  • Sensitometry

Question 40 of 46

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The primary purpose for using personal monitoring is to:

Select one of the following:

  • Protect the radiographer

  • Calculate the total radiation a radiographer delivers

  • Monitor radiographers repeat rate

  • Monitor radiographers occupational exposure

Question 41 of 46

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Which type of ionizing radiation will have the LEAST biological effect:

Select one of the following:

  • Alpha particles

  • Fast neutrons

  • Protons

  • Diagnostic x-ray

Question 42 of 46

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Consider teletherapy (external beam radiotherapy) with medical accelerator (Linac) and cobalt-60 unit. Which is the MOST significant difference bewteen the two methods, regarding radiation protection:

Select one of the following:

  • Linac can generate higher energy radiation

  • Servicing colbalt-60 unit takes more time

  • Linac produces radiation only when switched on and cobalt-60 unit generates radiation at all times.

Question 43 of 46

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What is the SIGNIFICANT difference between sealed and unsealed radiation sources used in radiotherapy:

Select one of the following:

  • Sealed sources have higher activity

  • Unsealed sources have longer half-life

  • Unsealed sources take part in the body metabolism

Question 44 of 46

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Iodine-131 is used in thyroid cancer therapy, but it is undesirable for diagnostic purposes. Why is that?

Select one of the following:

  • The half-life of iodine-131 is too long

  • Emits beta and gamma radiation (radiation exposure to pt is greater)

  • Emits gamma rays with several energy

Question 45 of 46

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In nuclear medicine, what is the significant difference between "in vivo" and "In vitro" radionuclide based investigations:

Select one of the following:

  • "In vitro" investigations do not require highly qualified personnel

  • "In vitro" investigations do not expose PT's to radiation

  • Both A and B

Question 46 of 46

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In November 2006, former KGB spy Alexander Litvinenko fell suddenly ill. He died in London's University College Hospital, leaving doctors puzzled over the cause of death. It was later determined he had ingested the radionuclide polonium-210. Given that (prior to the autopsy), radiation was undetectable out of Litvinenko's body, what was the type of radioactive decay?

Select one of the following:

  • Alpha particles

  • Beta particles

  • Gamma Rays

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PMU - Year 1 Physics - Part 4(B)

Sole C
Quiz by , created almost 2 years ago

All Questions uploaded word for word from MCQ book. All Credit to Authors. Mistakes due in process may have been made, use and check your work at your own discretion. Only simple writing allowed, i.e Superscript and Subscript absent. Questions missed due to Figure/Diagrams/Text:114

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Sole C
Created by Sole C almost 2 years ago
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