Ethical Language A Level Edexcel

Question 1 of 41

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What is meta-ethics?

Select one or more of the following:

  • studying of ethical language

  • a judgement

Question 2 of 41

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What do ethical naturalists believe?

Select one or more of the following:

  • We can define good in a non-moral, natural way

  • We cannot define good in a non-moral, natural way

Question 3 of 41

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What do ethical non-naturalists believe?

Select one or more of the following:

  • We can define good in a non-moral, natural way.

  • We cannot define good in a non-moral, natural way.

Question 4 of 41

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How would ethical naturalists describe moral truths?

Select one or more of the following:

  • cognitive and objective

  • non-propositional

  • factual and realist

  • non-reductionist

  • propositional

Question 5 of 41

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How would ethical non-naturalists describe moral truths?

Select one or more of the following:

  • non-cognitive, subjective, anti-realist

  • propositional

  • non-propositional

Question 6 of 41

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What is Hume's book called?

Select one or more of the following:

  • Principia Ethica

  • Language, Truth and Logic

  • Dialogues of Natural Religion

  • Summa Theologica

  • A Treatise of Human Nature

Question 7 of 41

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Hume was an ethical non-naturalist

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 8 of 41

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Explain the 'is-ought' gap?

Select one of the following:

  • You can't move from a descriptive (is) statement to a prescriptive (ought) statement. This would be logically invalid because factual statements don't lead to value judgements.

  • Explains how there is no moral knowledge because it is neither synthetic or analytic.

  • Moral knowledge does exist but we cannot jump from 'is' to 'ought'. We have to go from 'ought' to 'is'

Question 9 of 41

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Explain Hume's Fork.

Select one of the following:

  • What Hume used to eat dinner.

  • Hume's Fork demonstrates Hume's belief that knowledge can be either synthetic or analytic. Since morality is neither, it cannot be knowledge. Thus morality is only a belief and has no place on the fork.

  • Descriptive statements do not lead to a prescriptive statement.

  • We cannot intuit good

Question 10 of 41

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What is the oranges example by Tyler and what does it show?

Select one of the following:

  • The example of oranges says that we should eat oranges because they contain vitamin C.

  • The oranges examples demonstrates the is-ought gap. Just because oranges contain vitamin C (descriptive statement) doesn't meant that we ought to eat them (prescriptive statement).

  • Tyler argues that we shouldn't have to eat oranges because some people are allergic.

  • The oranges example explains how simple terms, such as orange, cannot be reduced or broken down into separate definitions.

Question 11 of 41

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What is Moore's book called?

Select one or more of the following:

  • A Treatise of Human Nature

  • The God Delusion

  • Principia Ethica

  • Summa Theologica

  • Language, Truth and Logic

  • Language Games

Question 12 of 41

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Moore is an ethical naturalist.

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 13 of 41

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Explain the naturalistic fallacy.

Select one of the following:

  • We commit the naturalistic fallacy when we try to define good. Good is a unique term that cannot be defined.

  • It is illogical to move from a factual statement to a value judgement because they are unrelated.

  • We commit the naturalistic fallacy when we define good because good is a complex term that can be defined.

  • We commit the naturalistic fallacy when we try to define bad, since it cannot be defined.

Question 14 of 41

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What is Moore's quote about good?

Select one of the following:

  • "Good is good and that is the end of the matter"

  • "self-control is essential"

  • "This change is imperceptible; but is, however, of the last consequence."

  • "Good is good and that is that"

  • "Good is an illusion"

Question 15 of 41

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Explain Moore's Open Question Argument.

Select one or more of the following:

  • The Open Question Argument is used to challenge ethical naturalism.

  • A closed question, such as is a bachelor an unmarried man?, has the answer contained in the question.

  • An open question, such as is pleasure really good?, has the answer contained in the question.

  • An open question, such as is pleasure really good?, doesn't have the answer within the question.

  • Moore uses Open Questions to support his argument.

  • Every attempt at defining good leaves us with an open question and this shows the failure of ethical naturalism.

Question 16 of 41

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Despite being an ethical non-naturalist, what does Moore believe that is different from Hume?

Select one or more of the following:

  • Objective moral truths exist.

  • Good can be defined.

  • Moral knowledge exists.

  • Objective moral truths don't exist.

  • Moral knowledge is cognitive, realist and propositional.

Question 17 of 41

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Moore believes that we intuit what is good and thus although we cannot define good, we can understand good.

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 18 of 41

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Objective moral truths exists, according to Moore.

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 19 of 41

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What is Moore's quote about intuitionism and moral knowledge.

Select one of the following:

  • "Good is good and that is the end of the matter"

  • "good is rather like yellow"

  • "always look on the bright side of life"

  • "infallible, intuitive knowledge"

  • "intuitive, infallible knowledge"

Question 20 of 41

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Moore believes that we can define good because it is a simple term.

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 21 of 41

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What colour does Moore compare with good in order to explain simple terms?

Select one of the following:

  • Orange

  • Purple

  • Gold

  • Yellow

Question 22 of 41

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What is Moore's example of a complex term that can be reduced down into a definition?

Select one of the following:

  • Bird

  • Horse

  • Yellow

  • Carrot

Question 23 of 41

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Intuitionism is a cognitive theory.

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 24 of 41

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We use our intuition to work out what is good and therefore it is self-evident.

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 25 of 41

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Moore is a traditional intuitionist

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 26 of 41

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Tick three strengths of intuitionism.

Select one or more of the following:

  • Avoids naturalistic fallacy

  • We intuit differently

  • Intuitionism motivates us to act morally

  • Satisfies the moral absolutist

  • Intuitionism removes the confusion and ambiguity of trying to define good. Deciding on a right action is simplified as we intuit what is good.

Question 27 of 41

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Tick three weaknesses of Intuitionism.

Select one or more of the following:

  • We can't know if our intuition is correct.

  • Intuitionism doesn't satisfy the moral absolutist.

  • It is a form of realism.

  • We can't clarify what intuition is. Is it a conscience or a gut feeling?

  • Intuitionism doesn't motivate us morally.

  • We have a common intuition.

Question 28 of 41

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Who created emotivism?

Select one of the following:

  • Hume

  • Moore

  • Bentham

  • Ayer

  • Stevenson

Question 29 of 41

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Tick two things that Ayer believed about intuitionism.

Select one or more of the following:

  • Ayer disagrees with intuitionism because it is subjective.

  • Intuitionism can be verified.

  • Intuitionism cannot be empirically verified.

  • Ayer preferred Hume's Fork.

Question 30 of 41

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What was Ayer's book called?

Select one of the following:

  • Language, Logic and Truth

  • Truth, Logic and Language

  • Truth, Language and Logic

  • Language, Truth and Logic

Question 31 of 41

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Ayer believes ethical terms cannot be verified because they are "pseudo-concepts" and cannot be analysed.

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 32 of 41

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According to Ayer, ethical terms add something to factual content because they are valuable.

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 33 of 41

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Tick two quotes by Ayer that describe what ethical terms are.

Select one or more of the following:

  • "moral sentiment"

  • "Good is good and that is the end of the matter"

  • "Good is good and that is that"

  • "verbal ejaculation"

  • "good is rather like yellow"

Question 34 of 41

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Explain the Ayer's 'boo-hurrah' theory.

Select one of the following:

  • Ethical terms are just expressions of our emotions. For example, saying stealing is wrong is just a 'boo' and saying sharing is right is a 'hurrah'. There is no factual value to ethical terms.

  • Ayer believes that intuitionism is 'boo' and emotivism is 'hurrah'

  • The 'boo-hurrah' theory is used to demonstrate how ethical terms can be verified and have emotional value.

Question 35 of 41

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Stevenson developed Ayer's emotivism.

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 36 of 41

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What is Stevenson's essay called?

Select one of the following:

  • The Emotive Meaning of Ethical Terms

  • Principia Ethica

  • A Treatise of Human Nature

  • Modern Moral Philosophy

  • Emotivism: The Book

  • The Emotional Meaning of Ethical Terms

Question 37 of 41

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Stevenson believes that ethical statements have two purposes. Tick the correct two purposes.

Select one or more of the following:

  • Ethical statements add to factual content.

  • Ethical statements express our own psychological beliefs/attitudes.

  • Ethical statements are unverifiable.

  • Ethical statements are an attempt to persuade others of our feeling.

  • Ethical statements are an attempt to discourage people thinking.

Question 38 of 41

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Stevenson's theory is different from Ayer's emotivism because it gives meaning to ethical language.

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 39 of 41

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Tick three strengths of emotivism.

Select one or more of the following:

  • Emotivism is just a shouting match of emotions.

  • Emotivism acknowledges different moral views.

  • Stevenson gives purpose and meaning to ethical language and his argument makes sense.

  • We are able to remove reason from moral judgements.

  • Emotivism explains why moral disputes are impossible to resolve because they are impossible to prove/verify

Question 40 of 41

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Tick three weaknesses of emotivism. (Hint: This can include any criticisms made by scholars)

Select one or more of the following:

  • Barclay believes we need laws in our society to avoid chaos so we cannot just rely on emotion.

  • Emotivism helps us express ourselves.

  • MacIntyre criticises emotivism because it is just a shouting match of emotivism

  • Emotivism rejects moral absolutes and is subjective

  • Emotivism is boring and doesn't make sense.

Question 41 of 41

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Ayer's quote criticising intuitionism.

Select one of the following:

  • "Good is good and that is the end of that"

  • "a mere appeal to intuition is worthless as a test of a proposition's validity"

  • "Good is good and that is that"

  • "Verification is the only way"

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Ethical Language A Level Edexcel

fstok
Quiz by , created almost 2 years ago

Revision quiz for the Ethical Language topic of Unit 3 Ethics (A2 Religious Studies Developments Edexcel)

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Created by fstok almost 2 years ago
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