The spinal cord occupies the entire vertebral canal:
The end of spinal cord (conus medullaris) adult is at L2:
The sacrum contains the subarachnoid space along the whole length of the sacral canal:
The atlas has the first cervical spinal nerve on its posterior arch:
The first spinal nerve has the shortest roots and the last one the longest:
The connection between the dorsal and lateral funicle is called Lisauer zone (zona terminalis)
Sulcus intermedius dorsali is a groove between sulcus medianus dorsalis and sulcus dorsolateralis in the upper thoracic and cervical part of the spinal cord.
Dorsal funiculus in the cervical segments contains fasiculus gracilis, laterally and fasciculus cuneatus, medially:
The spinal cord ends caudally at the coccyx:
If in the process of doing a lumbar puncture a spinal needle was inserted posteriorly in the mid-line until it had just penetrated the posterior longitudinal ligament, would the needle have entered the sub-arachnoid space?
The part of a spinal nerve that supplies the true back muscles and the skin overlying them is the:
Dorsal primary ramus
Ventral primary ramus
A football player suffers a herniated (ruptured) intervertebral disk in his neck. The disk compresses the spinal nerve exciting through the invertebrate foramen between the 5th and 6th cervical vertebrae. Which spinal nerve is affected?
A man has a herniated intervertebral disk between the fourth and fifth lumbar vertebrae. If this disk compresses the spinal nerve in the intervertebral foramen immediately posterior to this disk, which spinal nerve would be affected?
Both the dural sac and the subarachnoid space end at which vertebral level?
It is decided to image the spinal cord and spinal nerve rootlets by doing a myelogram (injection of a radio-opaque dye into the subarachnoid space followed by a radio-graph). In order to inject the dye without injury to the spinal cord, the injection is usually done below what vertebral level?
The myelogram revealed that the dye had leaked out along the spinal nerves in the mid cervical region on the right side. For the dye to leak out, what layer must have been torn or ruptured?
In the lumbar spine, the L4 nerve root sleeve exits:
Above the pedicle of L4 and at the top of the intervertebral foramen
Above the pedicle of L4 and at the bottom of the intervertebral foramen
Below the pedicle of L4 and at the top of the intervertebral foramen
Below the pedicle of L4 and at the bottom of the intervertebral foramen
Which structure does NOT contain efferent autonomic nerve fibers?
Dorsal ramus of C4
Dorsal root of T6
Ventral root of T3
Ventral ramus of L2
It was noted that after an injury the patients face on the right side was flushed due to dilation of the blood vessels. The lack of vaso-constriction was due to interruption of what fibers somewhere along their course?
A 60-year-old male presented with a number of unusaul signs and symptoms in the facial region. Among others, it was found that the right side of his face was flushed (red). Further testing revealed a lack of ability to sweat in the same cutaneous region. Which nervous structures were most likely implicated in this set of clinical abnormalities?
Cranial outflow of the ans
Dorsal roots of cervical nerves
Gray rami communicantes of T5
Sympathetic nerve fibers
The conus medullaris:
Exhibits both a cervical and lumbar enlargement.
Has a modification of neural tissue extending from its termination to the coccygeal ligament
Gives origin to most of the cauda equina.
Is found at its lowest extent at S2
Is normally anesthetized to perform a spinal tap
A neuron with a cell body in the dorsal root ganglia could convey what type of fibers?
Motor to the deep back muscles
Motor to the pectoralis major muscle
Sensory from the skin overlying the trapezius
Sympathetic preganglionics to the suprarenal medulla
Visceral efferents to the stomach
Which is a source of axons found in the dorsal primary ramus of the 4th thoracic spinal nerve?
Afferent neurons arising from the skin overlying the trapezius muscle
Somatic motor neurons supplying the levator scapulae muscle
Somatic motor neurons supplying the rhomboid muscles
Somatic motor neurons supplying the trapezius muscle
The denticulate ligament:
Is a modification of pia mater
Is found between all dorsal and ventral roots
Attaches to the dural sac continuously
Has its terminal attachment at S2
Holds the radicular arteries in place.
In order to expose the spinal cord from the posterior side, it is necessary to remove the:
Laminae, pedicles and ligamenta flava
Laminae, spinous processes and ligamenta flava
Pedicles, spinous processes and posterior longitudinal ligament
Transverse processes, pedicles and ligamenta flava
Cells that convey information to the CNS are:
Afferent sensory neurons
First neuron is the sensory pathway
Located in the lateral horn of spinal cord
With peripheral processes ending on somatic or splanchnic receptor
Dorsal roots of a spinal nerve:
Are formed by the central processes of sensory neurons in the spinal ganglion
Enter the ventrolateral sulcus of the spinal cord.
Convey somatosensory (proprioseptive and visceroseptive) information
Are covered with pia meter
Take part in the formation of the spinal nerve.
The ventral roots of a spinal nerve:
Convey motor information to the skeletal muscles.
Exit through the ventrolateral sulcus of the spinal cord.
Are ensheated with dura mater spinalis.
Originate from interneurons in the ventral horn
Contain autonomic fibers.
The boundary between spinal cord and medulla oblongata is:
Exit of the first pair of spinal nerves
Exit of the last pair of cranial nerves
A spinal segment is defined as that region of the spinal cord that:
Corresponds to a collection of nerves passing up or down with the white matter.
Corresponds to the region of the vertebral column (i.e, cervical, thoracic, lumbar and sacral) to which spinal nerves are sent.
Sends rootlets to a particular spinal nerve.
Underlies the neural arch of a particular vertebra in the adult.
None of the above.
The spinal cord in the adult:
Usually ends about the level of the lower border of the first lumbar vertebra.
Has its largest cross sectional area at the level of the lower cervical vertebrae.
Has an anterior median fissure and a posterior median septum.
Gives origin to the preganglionic fibres of all the parasympathetic nerves
Receives its blood supply entirely from the vertebral arteries.
The white matter of the spinal cord:
Contain myelin fibers, non-myelin fibers and blood vessels.
Has three columns.
Has white commissure posteriorly to the gray commissure
Has root system and conductive system.
Is covered with arachnoidea
Is located around the gray matter
Contains two main fascicles along the whole length of the dorsal column
Contains fasciculi proprii (own bundles)
Ventral funiculus contains faciculus interfaciculatus (bundle of Schultze)
Ventral funiculus is between ventral median fissure and ventral roots
Grossly the spinal cord presents two swellings which are:
Cervical and thoracic
Cervical and lumbar
Thoracic and lumbar
Thoracic and sacral
Lumbar and sacral
All spinal nerves:
Are formed by the union of a ventral and dorsal nerve root.
Have a ganglion containing synapses on their dorsal root.
Are named and numbered according to the vertebra below which they emerge.
Receive a grey ramus communicans from the sympathetic nerve trunk.
Give off a white ramus communicans to the sympathetic nerve trunk.
The cell bodies of the nerve fibres making up the fasciculus gracilis are found in:
Posterior root ganglia
Posterior grey horn
Lateral grey horn
Anterior grey horn
In the spinal cord:
There is more white matter in a cross section of the cervical region than the lumbar region.
The anterior horns of grey matter are larger in the lumbar region than in the thoracic region.
The fibres associated with the sensations of pain and temperature form a tract in the anterior columns of white matter.
Descending fibres from the motor areas of the brain are found in the lateral and anterior columns of white matter.
There are no descending fibres in the posterior columns.