Economics Unit-1 (Jan10/Jun 11/Jan 11/Jun12/Jan12)

Question 1 of 74

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Which one of the following is a positive economic statement?

Select one of the following:

  • Resources are best allocated via the market mechanism

  • Government spending on health care should be increased.

  • An increase in interest rates will reduce house prices.

  • Pollution is the most serious of all economic problems.

Question 2 of 74

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two products are in joint supply when

Select one of the following:

  • a fall in the output of one product is accompanied by a decrease in the output of the other products.

  • an increase in the demand for one product reduces the supply of the other products.

  • a rise in the quantity supplied of one product reduces the supply of the other product.

  • a fall in the price of one product reduces the cost of supplying the other product.

Question 3 of 74

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Government failure always occurs when

Select one of the following:

  • government intervention leads to a net welfare loss compared to the free market solution.

  • social costs in a market are greater than social benefits.

  • the government fails to intervene in the market.

  • externalities exist in a market.

Question 4 of 74

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the marketing department of a company manufacturing and selling washing machines has found that its product has a price elasticity of demand equal to -0.75. This suggests that if the company raises the price of washing machines

Select one of the following:

  • the quantity demanded will fall by 75%.

  • the amount consumers spend on the product will increase.

  • the quantity demanded will increase by 75%.

  • the amount consumers spend on the product will fall.

Question 5 of 74

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A market is defined as being in equilibrium when

Select one of the following:

  • there is maximum output at minimum cost.

  • prices are at their lowest possible level.

  • there is no tendency for the market price to change.

  • consumer satisfaction is maximised.

Question 6 of 74

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The abolition of betting tax led to an estimated 37% increase in sales during the last quarter at Stanley's, a chain of betting shops. Betting tax was an indirect tax on each bet placed by customers. The abolition pf betting tax can be shown by the

Select one of the following:

  • supply curve of bets shifting to the left.

  • supply curve of bets shifting to the right.

  • demand curve for bets shifting to the left.

  • demand curve for bets shifting to the right.

Question 7 of 74

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a government grants producers a subsidy for a product. Which one of the following is likely to result in the largest increase in its sales?

Select one of the following:

  • supply is price elastic

  • supply is price inelastic

  • demand is price inelastic

  • demand is price elastic

Question 8 of 74

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For monopoly to persist over time in a market, it is most likely that

Select one of the following:

  • the good produced is a necessity

  • the firm is charging high prices

  • there are barriers to entry

  • the firm is productively efficient

Question 9 of 74

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An economic good is one which

Select one of the following:

  • has an opportunity cost in production

  • does not use up resources

  • is supplied competitively

  • makes a profit

Question 10 of 74

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When money is used as a medium of exchange

Select one of the following:

  • barter or swapping of goods is likely to become more common

  • trade is likely to increase

  • the relative prices of goods never change

  • specialization and the division of labour are made more difficult

Question 11 of 74

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Which one of the following is most likely to lead to greater labour productivity in an industry?

Select one of the following:

  • an increase in market demand

  • a fall in wages

  • an increase in the number of firms in the industry

  • an increase in capital investment

Question 12 of 74

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Assuming the price elasticity of demand for a product is zero, any tax placed on the product will

Select one of the following:

  • leave the position of the supply curve unchanged

  • be paid entirely by the producer

  • shift the demand curve to the left

  • raise the price of the product by the full amount of the tax

Question 13 of 74

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Market failure arises when

Select one of the following:

  • prices rise in response to excess demand.

  • positive externalities exist in consumption

  • firms make zero profits

  • costs increases as firms expand production.

Question 14 of 74

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Cross elasticity of demand is defined as the

Select one of the following:

  • responsiveness of the price of one good to a change in demand for another.

  • responsiveness of demand for one good to a change in demand for another

  • responsiveness of demand for one good to a change in the price of another

  • responsiveness of the price of one good to a change in the price of another

Question 15 of 74

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Merit goods are likely to be under-provided in a free market economy because their

Select one of the following:

  • private benefits exceeds their social benefits

  • social benefits exceed their social costs.

  • private costs exceed their private benefits.

  • social benefits exceed their private benefits.

Question 16 of 74

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The central purpose of economic activity is

Select one of the following:

  • to create maximum profit.

  • the satisfaction of needs and wants.

  • to achieve economic efficiency.

  • to save scarce resources.

Question 17 of 74

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To calculate the percentage change in the quantity supplied of a good following a change in its price, the price elasticity of supply should be

Select one of the following:

  • divided by the percentage change in price.

  • divided by the percentage change in quantity.

  • multiplied by the percentage change in price.

  • multiplied by the percentage change in quantity.

Question 18 of 74

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An economy in which average incomes have fallen by 5% has also seen the demand for holidays overseas fall by 20%. It can be concluded from this that the income elasticity of demand for holidays overseas is

Select one of the following:

  • + 4.0

  • – 4.0

  • + 0.25

  • – 0.25

Question 19 of 74

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A monopoly market will be less economically efficient than a competitive market if, under monopoly,

Select one of the following:

  • the market demand curve is inelastic.

  • the main objective of the firm is maximum profit.

  • there are both economies of scale and diseconomies of scale.

  • prices are higher and output is lower.

Question 20 of 74

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An economy is always productively efficient if it

Select one of the following:

  • continually increases its average standard of living.

  • maximises investment in capital goods.

  • is operating with full employment of labour.

  • can produce more of one good only by producing less of another.

Question 21 of 74

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The equilibrium price in a market

Select one of the following:

  • is the market-clearing price.

  • changes when demand equals supply.

  • always increases when demand rises.

  • is the balance of excess demand and excess supply.

Question 22 of 74

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Which one of the following would be classified by an economist under the factor of production known as land?

Select one of the following:

  • A tractor

  • Chemical fertiliser

  • Fish in the ocean

  • A farmer

Question 23 of 74

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Government failure may result directly from

Select one of the following:

  • the high cost of administering government policy.

  • underconsumption of merit goods by the public.

  • a failure of market prices to reflect social costs.

  • goods being provided through the market mechanism.

Question 24 of 74

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Which one of the following is an example of composite demand?

Select one of the following:

  • The demand for labour increases as the demand for the good which that labour produces
    increases.

  • The demand for petrol increases because car travel increases in popularity.

  • The demand for strawberries increases following a series of price reductions.

  • The demand for bricks increases for use in both house building and factory building.

Question 25 of 74

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Positive externalities exist when

Select one of the following:

  • production creates private benefits.

  • private benefits are less than social benefits.

  • private benefits are greater than private costs.

  • social costs exceed private costs.

Question 26 of 74

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Market failure arises whenever firms

Select one of the following:

  • make a loss.

  • replace machines with workers.

  • create externalities.

  • reduce expenditure on research and development.

Question 27 of 74

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All other things being equal, supply curves slope upwards from left to right because

Select one of the following:

  • higher prices lead to higher costs.

  • lower prices lead to higher output.

  • lower prices lead to higher demand.

  • higher prices lead to higher profits.

Question 28 of 74

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One reason why UK governments provide education is because

Select one of the following:

  • the private benefit from education is less than the social benefit.

  • education cannot be provided by the free market.

  • all education is both a merit good and a public good.

  • this ensures that the provision of education is maximised.

Question 29 of 74

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An increase in the price of petrol will often result in consumers economising in their use of fuel by reducing the number of journeys they make in their cars. This

Select one of the following:

  • is because petrol and car journeys are in joint supply.

  • shows that there is a positive cross elasticity of demand between the price of petrol and
    the demand for car journeys.

  • illustrates the operation of the rationing function of the price mechanism.

  • is because the price elasticity of demand for petrol is positive.

Question 30 of 74

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A firm will always reduce its unit cost of production as it expands its output if it

Select one of the following:

  • benefits from specialisation.

  • reduces its price.

  • moves down the economy’s production possibility frontier.

  • expands its use of capital and labour.

Question 31 of 74

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Market failure results in a misallocation of resources. In some cases, this can be corrected by the government

Select one of the following:

  • restricting the manufacture of goods that generate positive externalities.

  • providing public goods.

  • subsidising all loss-making firms.

  • placing a tax on merit goods.

Question 32 of 74

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Which one of the following is classified as an economic resource?

Select one of the following:

  • Consumption

  • Productivity

  • Production

  • Enterprise

Question 33 of 74

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‘OPEC is expected to cut output of crude oil by more than 1 million barrels per day when it
meets in Vienna this week. The cut is intended to maintain the high world price for oil.’
Source: news reports, 2008
All other things being equal, if output of crude oil was cut in a such a way, which one of the following would happen in the world market for crude oil? There would be a

Select one of the following:

  • movement along the supply curve

  • shift to the right of the supply curve

  • movement along the demand curve.

  • shift to the left of the demand curve.

Question 34 of 74

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Price elasticity of supply measures the responsiveness of the quantity supplied to a change in

Select one of the following:

  • demand

  • price

  • costs of production

  • the size of firms

Question 35 of 74

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Complete market failure always exists when

Select one of the following:

  • there are negative externalities in production.

  • the free market fails to provide sufficient merit goods

  • the free market underprices demerit goods

  • there is a missing market in the provision of public goods

Question 36 of 74

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Specialisation requires the existence of

Select one of the following:

  • economies of scale.

  • economic efficiency

  • a system of exchange

  • rising productivity

Question 37 of 74

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In an economy, some industries are dominated by a few large firms. Which one of the following is most likely to explain this situation?
In the economy

Select one of the following:

  • small producers are likely to suffer from diseconomies of scale

  • as industries increase their output, firms are likely to be able to charge a higher price for
    their products

  • as firms increase their size, the employment of specialist managers may result in a fall in
    the average cost of running a business

  • small firms find it hard to compete because, as firms increase their output, the rise in
    employment is likely to reduce labour productivity.

Question 38 of 74

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Which one of the following situations would lead to an increase in equilibrium price?

Select one of the following:

  • Demand is perfectly inelastic and labour costs rise

  • Demand is perfectly elastic and labour costs rise

  • Supply is perfectly elastic and the price of a substitute good falls

  • Demand is perfectly inelastic and labour costs fall

Question 39 of 74

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Which one of the following measures of elasticity indicates that two goods are substitutes?

Select one of the following:

  • A negative income elasticity of demand

  • A positive price elasticity of demand

  • A positive cross elasticity of demand

  • A negative price elasticity of demand

Question 40 of 74

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The income elasticity of demand for a good is −3. Which one of the following statements is correct?

Select one of the following:

  • A 20% increase in income leads to a 60% fall in quantity demanded.

  • A 10% increase in price leads to a 30% fall in quantity demanded.

  • The good is a normal good

  • Demand for the good is income inelastic

Question 41 of 74

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‘Electricity suppliers are required to buy a growing amount of electricity from renewable energy generators. Green energy generators are paid more for their electricity because there is a scarcity of supply of electricity generated from renewable resources.’
It can be deduced from the data above that

Select one of the following:

  • the government pays a subsidy to generators of renewable energy.

  • the social cost of electricity generated from renewable resources is greater than the
    private cost.

  • the government is subsidising the negative externalities arising from the generation of
    ‘green energy’

  • electricity suppliers are paying higher average prices for their electricity because some of
    the electricity is generated from ‘green sources'.

Question 42 of 74

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Government intervention to correct market failure may make the situation worse because

Select one of the following:

  • the information needed to make sound economic decisions is widely dispersed amongst
    individuals and firms.

  • the government is unable to provide private goods since they are both rival and
    excludable.

  • positive externalities resulting from the consumption of merit goods means that they will
    be underprovided by the state

  • competition amongst firms in the private sector will inevitably result in an optimum
    allocation of resources

Question 43 of 74

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Government intervention to correct market failure may make the situation worse because

Select one of the following:

  • the information needed to make sound economic decisions is widely dispersed amongst
    individuals and firms.

  • the government is unable to provide private goods since they are both rival and
    excludable.

  • positive externalities resulting from the consumption of merit goods means that they will
    be underprovided by the state

  • competition amongst firms in the private sector will inevitably result in an optimum
    allocation of resources

Question 44 of 74

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A positive statement in economics is always

Select one of the following:

  • capable of being tested

  • based upon an opinion.

  • based upon numerical data

  • correct

Question 45 of 74

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Government provision of a merit good can be justified because

Select one of the following:

  • without government intervention there would be a missing market.

  • merit goods are non-rival and non-excludable

  • without government intervention partial market failure would result

  • the provision of merit goods has an opportunity cost

Question 46 of 74

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At all points on a country’s production possibility frontier

Select one of the following:

  • all firms are benefiting from economies of scale

  • productive efficiency is achieved

  • each point is equally socially desirable because output is at its maximum

  • there is an equal distribution of income in the economy

Question 47 of 74

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A good is excludable if

Select one of the following:

  • it is possible to prevent someone from enjoying its benefits.

  • it is supplied by the government rather than through the free market.

  • one person’s use has no effect on the quantity available for someone else.

  • it is supplied at a zero price.

Question 48 of 74

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In a typical demand schedule, quantity demanded

Select one of the following:

  • varies directly with price.

  • varies proportionately with price.

  • is determined by the elasticity of demand.

  • varies inversely with price.

Question 49 of 74

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Which one of the following is a normative statement?

Select one of the following:

  • Economic theory assumes that firms will maximise profits

  • Labour is the human contribution to production

  • Producers and consumers may have to consider opportunity cost when making
    decisions.

  • Governments must intervene in markets

Question 50 of 74

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The essential feature of an inferior good is that its

Select one of the following:

  • price elasticity of demand is positive.

  • income elasticity of demand is positive

  • price elasticity of demand is negative.

  • income elasticity of demand is negative

Question 51 of 74

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The use of money as a medium of exchange enables an economy to

Select one of the following:

  • operate outside its production possibility boundary.

  • increase production of public goods.

  • prevent market failure.

  • benefit from specialisation and the division of labour.

Question 52 of 74

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An industry’s supply curve is more likely to be price elastic in the short term if

Select one of the following:

  • the industry uses scarce factor inputs.

  • its firms are operating below their full capacity.

  • its firms hold relatively low levels of stock.

  • there are many substitutes for its output.

Question 53 of 74

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Left to the free market, Good X would not be produced at all. Yet the production and consumption of at least some of Good X increases the welfare of society. The government therefore has an incentive to intervene to ensure its provision. Good X is most likely to be a

Select one of the following:

  • public good.

  • free good.

  • merit good.

  • demerit good.

Question 54 of 74

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An indirect tax on the production of a good will have no effect on price if demand is

Select one of the following:

  • inversely related to price.

  • of unitary elasticity

  • perfectly elastic

  • perfectly inelastic

Question 55 of 74

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If increased economies of scale are experienced by firms in an industry, this is likely to result in

Select one of the following:

  • a competitive market replacing a monopoly.

  • rising unit costs of production.

  • the demand curve for the good shifting to the right.

  • the supply curve of the good shifting to the right.

Question 56 of 74

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The government was recently advised that a 40% increase in the price of beer would reduce beer consumption by the rich by 6% and beer consumption by the poor by 20%. It can be concluded from this that

Select one of the following:

  • demand for beer is price inelastic for both rich and poor.

  • for the rich, beer is an inferior good.

  • the rich consume less beer than the poor.

  • the demand of the poor for beer is price elastic while that of the rich is price inelastic

Question 57 of 74

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Features of the fundamental economic problem include

Select one of the following:

  • both unlimited resources and many wants.

  • both trade-offs and conflicting objectives.

  • the provision of goods with no opportunity cost.

  • both scarce resources and limited wants.

Question 58 of 74

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Which one of the following is a reason for government intervention to correct a market failure?
The existence of

Select one of the following:

  • inferior goods

  • diseconomies of scale

  • externalities in consumption and production

  • goods in composite demand

Question 59 of 74

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Which one of the following statements referring to a market economy is correct?

Select one of the following:

  • Monopolists take no account of consumer preferences.

  • Prices do not always reflect social costs

  • Efficiency is always indicated by high profits

  • Large firms are more efficient than small firms.

Question 60 of 74

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A small firm is able to buy any amount of a raw material on world markets at the same price. This means that it faces a perfectly

Select one of the following:

  • elastic demand curve for the raw material.

  • inelastic demand curve for the raw material.

  • elastic supply curve for the raw material.

  • inelastic supply curve for the raw material.

Question 61 of 74

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The fundamental economic problem facing all societies is

Select one of the following:

  • what, how and for whom goods and services should be produced.

  • the existence of unemployed resources.

  • a significant divergence between social and private costs of production and consumption.

  • inequalities in the distribution of income and wealth.

Question 62 of 74

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Which one of the following is an example of an economy of scale?

Select one of the following:

  • A firm using its existing capacity more efficiently

  • A company using its factory to produce more than one product

  • A car firm increasing its range of models

  • A firm employing specialist managers as its size increases

Question 63 of 74

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Which one of the following statements about a merit good is true?

Select one of the following:

  • It may be provided by the free market but not in sufficient quantities

  • Once the good has been supplied to one consumer, there is no extra cost in supplying it
    to others.

  • It is always provided free to consumers.

  • It tends to be provided by the government because it is non-excludable.

Question 64 of 74

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The demand for capital goods such as plant and machinery is said to be an example of derived demand because it depends on

Select one of the following:

  • the productivity of capital goods.

  • the quantity of consumer goods purchased.

  • the price of capital goods.

  • the amount of labour employed by a firm.

Question 65 of 74

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A free good has which one of the following characteristics?

Select one of the following:

  • It has no opportunity cost in supply.

  • It is generally supplied by the government because its consumption is considered to be
    socially desirable.

  • It has no externalities associated with its consumption or production.

  • It is in perfectly inelastic supply.

Question 66 of 74

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Which one of the following statements involves a value judgement?

Select one of the following:

  • The supply of beef is likely to be inelastic in the short run.

  • Economies of scale can lead to lower prices

  • Inferior goods have a negative income elasticity of demand.

  • The government was wrong to increase spending on roads.

Question 67 of 74

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In August 2000, the World Health Organisation said that a 10 % increase in cigarette prices worldwide would reduce consumption of cigarettes by 4 % in high-income countries and by 8 % in low-income countries.
The above statement suggests that

Select one of the following:

  • smokers in high-income countries are twice as addicted to cigarettes as those in
    low-income countries.

  • demand for cigarettes is price elastic in both low-income and high-income countries.

  • income elasticity of demand for cigarettes is higher in low-income countries than in
    high-income countries.

  • price elasticity of demand for cigarettes is negative in both high-income and low-income
    countries.

Question 68 of 74

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At current levels of output, the marginal social cost of making a good is greater than its marginal private cost. Also, the marginal social benefit of the good is greater than its marginal private benefit. As a result, there will probably be

Select one of the following:

  • a misallocation of resources.

  • positive externalities in production.

  • negative externalities in consumption.

  • economies of scale.

Question 69 of 74

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A tradeable pollution permit

Select one of the following:

  • is needed to equalise positive and negative externalities in production.

  • will be bought by a firm if its price is less than the social cost of the pollution it creates

  • is designed to reduce the negative externalities arising from pollution

  • can be used only by the firm to which it is issued.

Question 70 of 74

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In July 2007, smoking in enclosed public places in England became illegal.
Such a policy would inevitably lead to government failure if

Select one of the following:

  • the government’s tax revenue from cigarette sales fell.

  • the economic benefits arising from the ban were outweighed by its costs.

  • some people continued to smoke cigarettes in their own homes.

  • jobs were lost in the tobacco industry.

Question 71 of 74

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Specialisation and the division of labour require

Select one of the following:

  • a means of exchanging goods and services.

  • that the economy is operating on its production possibility frontier.

  • an absence of negative externalities.

  • competitive markets.

Question 72 of 74

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One reason why the free market fails to achieve an optimal allocation of scarce resources is
because

Select one of the following:

  • public goods are provided free of charge to users.

  • positive externalities lead to overproduction of a good.

  • there is underproduction of goods with positive externalities.

  • individuals’ incomes and wealth are not identical

Question 73 of 74

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Labour productivity in an economy is likely to improve if there is

Select one of the following:

  • a reduction in the number of firms in an industry

  • an improvement in allocative efficiency.

  • an increase in the quantity of capital per worker.

  • a reduction in negative externalities in production.

Question 74 of 74

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A pure public good (or service) is always

Select one of the following:

  • provided by the government for all consumers.

  • provided free of charge for all consumers.

  • available for consumption by others when consumed by an additional person.

  • heavily subsidised by the government

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Economics Unit-1 (Jan10/Jun 11/Jan 11/Jun12/Jan12)

magrayrai
Quiz by , created about 3 years ago

Quiz on Economics Unit-1 (Jan10/Jun 11/Jan 11/Jun12/Jan12), created by magrayrai on 19/09/2013.

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