1.1 In the first solo across the Atlantic in 1927, how did Charles Lindbergh keep control of the airplane while flying in clouds and darkness?
with the use of a earth inductor compass
with the use of a turn-and bank indicator
with the use of a GPS
Name three instruments used by the Wright Brothers in their first flight that marked the beginning of what would become "avionics".
earth inductor compass
1.3 What generated power for Lindbergh's earth induct compass?
1.4 Which of the following systems airlines not consider part of "avionics"?
1.5 What technology was widely adopted in avionics to reduce size and weight, as well as provide greatly increased function.
1.6 What system, made possible by digital electronics, greatly reduces the problem of mid-air collisions?
1.7 What replaces early "steam gauges" in aircraft instrument panels?
Flat LCD panels
some other crazy answer
1.8 How can the function of an electronic instrument be easily enhanced?
by upgrading its software
by purchasing a new instrument
by changing its sensors
by apply contact cleaner
1.9 What does "CNS," which describes basic functions of avionics, stand for?
Center of Nautical Instrument
1.10 "FADEC" is.
An automatic electronic system that controls engine efficiency by using the less fuel as possible
An automatic electronic system that controls airplane primary control surfaces in order to take workload from the pilot
1.11 Name the world body that deliberates future aviation technology?
2.1 Radio frequencies are measured in Hertz (Hz), after Heinrich Hertz, What was his contribution to communications?
enable peoble to communicate using air as a transport medium
"nothing I guess"
What was the first system for marking cross-country airways?
What was the first instrument to enable pilots to maintain control of an airplane without seeing outside the cockpit?
turn and bank indicator
turn and bank coordinator
What component led to the artificial horizon and autopilot?
auto pilot computer
? Name the developer of the autopilots early systems.
Alexander Graham Bell
What type of transmitter sent the first radio message from an airplane to the ground?
high frecuency transmitter
piezo electric transmitter
Who was the pioneer who flew the flrst in strument flight, sometimes known as "blind flying," in 1929?
What system in Air Traffic Control replaced position reports by voice?
reports by Morse code
reports by ACARS
Reports by datalink
3.2 What is the frequency coverage of the VHF com band?
3 to 30 Mhz
30 to 300 Mhz
300 to 3000 Mhz
What is the narrowest spacing for channels in the VHF com band?
3.6 What is the purpose of a mic key line?
provide the signal that de-activate the microphone
provide the signal that activate the microphone
call Mic Key
Permits the use of the comminication receiver
3.7 A typical com radio has two frequencys
3.8 What is the purpose of a squelch?
Allows the user to hear throught the radio interference Caused by the atmosphere
is provides the mean so the user can perform a quick test on the com receiver
it provides interfece between ATC and pilot
is a filter of atmospheric noise that incorporate the receiver in order to provide a clean sound
3.9 What function does the "com test" control provide?
disable the squelch
activate the squelch
is the squelch back up fuction
3.10 Where is the LRU (line replaceable unit) for a com transceiver of a large aircraft located?
wheel well compartment
3.11 What is a radio management system?
I dont know, it does not really exist
is a unit the provide all of the differents com LRU control buttons and advisories in a single unit
It is a universal com control panel located on the cockpit
3.12 What is the third VHF com radio of an airIiner often used for?
back up of the com 1 and com 2
sat com interface
4.1 Are High Frequency communications not as reliable as those of VHF because the ionosphere is always changing between day and night and season to season
4.2 What is the advantage of "Autotune.“
reduced pilot workload
permits the use of the auto tune trailing edge antenna at the aft of the airplane
it concentrates all of the transmitter power in only on of three components
4.4 What made HF datalink successful?
the extremely huge antennainternetworked
HFDL system relationship to HF voice
Automatic selection of data rates:
Digital signal processing
pre-assigned frequency to communicate with the responsible ATC
HF ground stations
4.7 What is the purpose of an HF antenna coupler?
auto tune the antenna
it is just the component that couple the antenna to its mounting
4.6 check the correct aseverations on HF datalink
Data Relieves Congestion on Voice Frequencies
-Data Detects Errors and Automatically Retransmits
Shorter Message Transmission Time (Iess than 3 seconds vs more than 1 minute)
it is the preffered system of communications in short fligths
5.1 Select those that are true about satellite communications?
it is Free from atmospheric interference and limited bandwidth
it is not Free from atmospheric interference and limited bandwidth
Satcom signals penetrate the ionosphere without bending or reflecting
Satcom signals can not penetrate the ionosphere without bending or reflecting
are unaffected by electrical noise or weather
are affected by electrical noise or weather
5.2 What is the name of the next generation air traffic control system based on satellites?
5.3 How many Inmarsat satellites provide global coverage, and where are they located?
They are 24 satellites of GPS constellation in six planes
four satellites that hover over the equator
they are four satellites that are not geostacionary instead each one can see all the following regions
871 Atlantic Ocean Region – East (AOR-E)
872 Pacific Ocean Region (POR)
873 Indian Ocean Region (IOR)
874 Atlantic Ocean Region – West (AOR-W
The two major components of the satcom system are Ground Earth Station and Aircraft Earth Station
satcom antenna that supports the full range of satcom services
select satcom antennas that must be highly directional?
5.9 After satellite messages are received at a GES, how do they get to their final destination?
Trough telecommunications services throughout the world.
trough satellite dishes over the world.
5.10 On what band does the aircraft send and receive satellite communications?
5.11 What is the purpose of a Beam Steering Unit?
keeps the elements pointed at the satellite as the airplane position changes
converts signals from an intermediate frequency up into the L-band
SDU interfaces with the airplane navigation system
5.12 What is the typical location on the airplane for an electromechanically steered antenna?
under the airplane
at the top of vertical stabilizer
inside the vertical stabilizer
5.13 communications satellites appear to remain fixed in one position?
6.1 What is the meaning of the abbreviation "ACARS"?
Aircraft Communication Addressing and Repair System
Aircraft Communication Air and Reporting System
Aircraft Communication Addressing and Reporting System
6.2 What type of communications occur on ACARS?
datalink through LF
datalink through L band
datalink through VHF
datalink through HF
datalink through UHF
6.3 networks operates ground and satellite services for ACAR are ARINC and SITA
6.4 What is the meaning of the ACARS message "0001 OFF"
preflight and taxi
approach and landing
none of the options
6.5 an ACARS message received only by the aircraft it’s intended for?
7.1 What does the contraction "Selcal” mean?
7.2 Select the reasons why Selcal is used.
During oceanic flights, aircraft monitor a HF (high frequency) radio for clearances from a ground controller from long period of time
HF reception is often noisy
a pilot prefers to turn down the audio He will not miss calls intended for him
VHF com are not to trust
7.3 How many tones are in a Selcal code?
7.4 How many Selcal tone pairs are transmitted simultaneously?
7.5 Can two aircraft have the same Selcal code?
7.6 if a pilot receives a Selcal intended for a different airplane
the system is faulty
the pilot should double check with the controller
8.1 how many are sent out by an ELT during a distress call?
8.2 an ELT must be mounted
perpendicular with the direction of flight
in line with the direction of flight
it does not matter
8.3 Name the satellites that pick up and relay ELT signals?
8.4 a geostacionary satellite
receive a distress message that contains the airplane’s position provided by a GPS
8.5 a G-switch
is the Test switch on cockpit
is the Geostacionary switch
is the impact switch
The 406 system is a mixture of Leosar and Geosar satellites. Leosar ("low earth orbit search and rescue") completely covers the globe
9.1 Is there a combined VOR and Tacan navigational station?
9.2 What problem of early radionavigation did VOR overcome?
lights houses worked perfectly
bad weather nav
9.3 VOR waves travel
9.4 Name the two major components of a VOR signal
9.5 The reference phase broadcasts in what direction?
ommidirectional, ergo VOR
9.6 The variable phase rotates 60 times per second
9.6 The variable phase rotates 10 Times per second
9.7 What happens when the variable phase moves through magnetic north (O degrees)?
a reference phase beams in 360 directions
a reference phase is on its lowest frecuency
a reference phase is on its highest frecuency
9.8 the VOR receiver know its bearing from the VOR station by counting time
9.9 Besides fixed and variable phase signals, are there other information broadcasted by a VOR station?
9.10 Why is it necessary to place the reference phase signal on an FM subcarrier?
because it is a to low frecuency
because it is in a to hi frecuency
because its a signal with little power
9.11 What is the purpose of the course deviation indicator (CDI) on a VOR receiver?
indicates the airplane heading
indicates the VOR graund station magnetic bearing selected on the instrument
indicates the VOR graund station runway
• 10.2 How is RVR (Runway Visual Range) measured on an ILS runway?
Is estimated by a weather observer and stated in miles
by a transmissometer
By measuring the loss of light (caused by haze or fog)
• 10.3 Name the categories of ILS.
Cat I-IIa-IIb- IIIa-IIIb-IIIc
10.4 What component of an ILS provides an ILS provides an extended centerline to the runway?
10.5 IS VNAV the ILS component that provides vertical guidance to a runway?
10.6 How many channels are allocated to localizers?
10.7 in general aviation The localizer frequency is selected on the
dedicated localizer receiver
dedicated ILS receiver
10.8 The frequencies of the two audio tones that provide left-right guidance or localizer are
10.9 When a localizer frequency is selected on the VOR receiver, the indicator needle indicates
the radial of the runway
the course selected on the OBS
fly left or right of the runway
10.9 When a localizer frequency is selected on the VOR receiver, the indicator needle deflected full right indicates 2.5 degrees off the center line... or more
10.11 The compass locator of an ILS is received on the
Inner marker beacon
middle marker beacon
outer marker beacon
10.12 The localizar frecuency is tuned automatically when glideslope frequenci is selected on the receiver?
11.1 select What were reasons for approving the Microwave Landing System?
ILS has only 40 frequencies
An ILS serves one runway with a single course
the repeated "I hear music” he reported to the controller
Installing an ILS at an airport is not simple
the GPS technology was out of reach
11.2 MLS creates inbound courses to runways by a scanning beam which moves back and forth beyond either side of the runway, this is called the ___________________________signal.
11.4 An MLS scanning beam determine the centerline of a runway by a principle called distance Reference Scanning Beam
11.4 An MLS scanning beam determine the centerline of a runway by a principle called time Reference Scanning Beam
11.5 Why are there so few MLS installations at airports?
it is to new
it is to expensive
Navstar systm was borned
11.6 What type of receiver can use ILS, MLS and GPS signals?
On what bands does ADF operate?
An ADF with a fixed compass card can only indicate _ bearing to an NDB (non-directional beacon) station.
When the edge of an ADF loop points toward the station, strongest signal is received. This is known as a?
When the flat side of the loop faces the station, the received signal is weakest. This is known as a?
Which is used by the ADF receiver for determining direction, the peak or null?
What is the purpose of a sense antenna?
Corregir el cuadrante
Is "quadrantal error, a condition in which the loop antenna is not in a extremely straight line with the NDB?
How is direction-finding selected'?
Activating the ADF function
Deactivating the ADF function
Activating the BFO function
Activating the ET/FLT function
What is the function of the switch marked "BFO" or "Tone"'?
It creates an audio from the NDB stations without audio identifier
It helps locate very weak NDB stations
Is makes possible the audio receptions if form of morse code by disabling the loop antenna
What type of interference may occur in a ADF receiver?
Natural sources interference
An airborne DME sends out a pulse known as an?
DME is a component of a military system known as?
In addition to distance-to-station, an airborne DME computes and?
A distance error in DME is called Slant Range?
All aircraft interrogating the same DME ground station are on the same frequency. How does an aircraft identify its replies from all others?
Due to the GS reply jitter is identical of that of the interrogation
Due to that each aircraft sends and random spacing pair of pulse that is different from all others
Due to that the airplane first makes a link with the ground station
How is a DME station tuned in?
With the knob in the DME panel, you select the DME frequency.
With the knob in the DME panel, you select the VORTAC frequency.
With the knob in the DME panel, you select the VOR frequency.
the radio automatically channels the correct DME frequency.
What happens when more than about 100 aircraft interrogate the same DME ground station?
The station reduces its receiver sensitivity*
Each airplane looks for its unique jitter pattern and locks on to it.
The system overload
does the DME ground station delay its reply by 50 microsecond To take time to copy aircraft interrogating panel?
Does the DME station transmit an ID?
A TCAS aircraft transmits an interrogation ?
Once per second
Twice per second
4 times per second
10 times per second
How does an intruder aircraft with an ATCRBS (early type) transponder reply to TCAS interrogations?
With an address
With an Threat Advisory
How does an intruder aircraft with a Mode S transponder reply to TCAS interrogations?
With a 1090 MHz Datalink Resolution Advisory
With a 1090 MHz Datalink Threat Advisory
With a 1030 MHz Datalink Resolution Advisory
With a 1030 MHz Datalink Threat Advisory
How does TCAS determine the direction of a threat?
With the TCAS directional antenna
With the transponder directional antenna
does TCAS determine the distance of a threat the same way the SSR?
How does TCAS determine whether the other aircraft is a threat?
If it is within 2.1 NM
If it is within 3.3 NM
If it is within 20 NM
Name the two kinds of warnings issued by TCAS
What does an Resolution Authority (RA) do?
Makes the other aircraft in collision course to appear on the screen
Tells the othe aircraft to fly up or down and left or right
Tells the othe aircraft to fly up or down
If two TCA aircraft are closing, what prevents them from climbing, and flying into each other?
The pilot resolution
The TCAS resolution
Where is the technique of “whisper-shout” most useful?
In cruise flight
In landings only
Near airports areas
does the directional antenna reduce the number of replies for each interrogation?